Energy Medicine Research References

This bibliography has been prepared by the Energy Medicine Research Network (EMRN) and is hosted by the National Institute for Integrative Healthcare (NIIH). A literature search was undertaken by Sandra Shipp, EEM-AP and Anne Rosebrook, MLP, and lists studies that have met the following criteria:

  • They assess the use of hands-on healing or interventions within the body’s energy field;
  • They use energetic exercises or techniques to balance the body’s energy systems;
  • The explanation they use for the effects of treatment is based on changes to the body’s energy field.

The Energy Medicine Research Network describes the search criteria as follows:

In order to complete the literature search, Ovid/Medline and PubMed medical databases were searched using the following keywords: acupressure, “Barbara Brennan”, biofield, cranio-sacral therapy, “body talk,” “energy medicine,” “energy healing,” “healing touch,” johrei, “polarity therapy,” “pranic healing,” “quantum touch,” reflexology, reiki, shiatsu, “touch for health,” “touch therapy,” and the MESH controlled vocabulary term “therapeutic touch.” Search results were limited to English language and human subject research. The results were visually scanned to eliminate general overviews of a modality, letters to the Editor, interviews, or other non-research publications. A broad range of reports was still included, ranging from more case studies to sophisticated clinical trials to systematic reviews of previously published studies.

This articles selected according to the criteria outlined above are presented as an APA-formatted reference list. They have not been reviewed to assess a positive, negative, or neutral outcome of the research, research methodology, or quality of research. It is merely a list of articles meeting the stated criteria.

The literature search identified 600+ studies encompassing the following Energy Medicine modalities:

  • Acupressure
  • Auricular Acupressure
  • Brennan Healing Science
  • Biofield Healing
  • Body Talk
  • Craniosacral therapy
  • Healing Touch
  • Johrei
  • Polarity Therapy
  • Pranic Healing
  • Quantum Touch
  • Reflexology
  • Reiki
  • Shiatsu
  • Therapeutic Touch
  • Touch for Health
  • Touch Therapy

Acupuncture, Distant Healing, EFT (Emotional Freedom Techniques), Energy Psychology, Massage, Prayer and Yoga are not included in this bibliography. The rationale for this exclusion can be found in an Appendix below the list of studies. Below are links to bibliographies for these modalities where available. The explanation of the process used to conduct the literature search, and full inclusion and exclusion criteria, is available in a PDF of the original list.

The original search was undertaken in May 2014 and the list is updated by EMRN volunteers periodically. If you’re aware of a study you feel should be included in the list, please read the full article first, and if you still feel the article should be included, please email, and it will be considered for inclusion during the next update.

Additional reference lists on other subsets of Energy Medicine are available at the links below:

Many of the above bibliographies are not current; we would also appreciate links to up-to-date sources if you’re aware of them. Thanks for your support of energy medicine!

Energy Medicine Research Bibliography

A, R. K., & Kurup, P. A. (2003). Changes in the isoprenoid pathway with transcendental meditation and Reiki healing practices in seizure disorder. Neurology India, 51(2), 211-214.

Abraham, J. (2008). Acupressure and acupuncture in preventing and managing postoperative nausea and vomiting in adults. Journal of Perioperative Practice, 18(12), 543-551.

Agarwal, A., Dhiraaj, S., Tandon, M., Singh, P. K., Singh, U., & Pawar, S. (2005). Evaluation of capsaicin ointment at the Korean hand acupressure point K-D2 for prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anaesthesia, 60(12), 1185-1188.

Agarwal, A., Ranjan, R., Dhiraaj, S., Lakra, A., Kumar, M., & Singh, U. (2005). Acupressure for prevention of pre-operative anxiety: a prospective, randomised, placebo controlled study. Anaesthesia, 60(10), 978-981.

Agdal, R., von, B. H. J., & Johannessen, H. (2011). Energy healing for cancer: a critical review. Forschende Komplementarmedizin (2006), 18(3), 146-154.

Ai, A. L., Peterson, C., Gillespie, B., Bolling, S. F., Jessup, M. G., Behling, B. A., & Pierce, F. (2001). Designing clinical trials on energy healing: ancient art encounters medical science. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine, 7(4), 83-90.

Alandydy, P., & Alandydy, K. (1999). Using Reiki to support surgical patients. Journal of Nursing Care Quality, 13(4), 89-91.

Alessandrini, M., Napolitano, B., Micarelli, A., de Padova, A., & Bruno, E. (2012). P6 acupressure effectiveness on acute vertiginous patients: a double blind randomized study. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 18(12), 1121-1126.

Alkaissi, A., Ledin, T., Odkvist, L. M., & Kalman, S. (2005). P6 acupressure increases tolerance to nauseogenic motion stimulation in women at high risk for PONV. Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, 52(7), 703-709.

Allais, G., Rolando, S., Castagnoli Gabellari, I., Burzio, C., Airola, G., Borgogno, P., . . . Benedetto, C. (2012). Acupressure in the control of migraine-associated nausea. Neurological Sciences, 33 Suppl 1, S207-210.

Anderson, J. G., & Taylor, A. G. (2011a). Biofield therapies in cardiovascular disease management: a brief review. Holistic Nursing Practice, 25(4), 199-204.

Anderson, J. G., & Taylor, A. G. (2011b). Effects of healing touch in clinical practice: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 29(3), 221-228.

Anderson, J. G., & Taylor, A. G. (2012). Biofield therapies and cancer pain. Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing, 16(1), 43-48.

Anonymous. (2005). Healing touch: hands-on help for the heart? Touch therapies are reaching growing numbers of patients. Harvard Heart Letter, 16(2), 3.

Anonymous. (2007). Management of cancer pain with complementary therapies. Oncology (Williston Park), 21(4 Suppl), 10-22; discussion 22.

Apostle-Mitchell, M., & MacDonald, G. (1997). An innovative approach to pain management in critical care: therapeutic touch. CACCN, 8(3), 19-22.

Arai, Y. C., Ushida, T., Osuga, T., Matsubara, T., Oshima, K., Kawaguchi, K., . . . Watakabe, K. (2008). The effect of acupressure at the extra 1 point on subjective and autonomic responses to needle insertion. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 107(2), 661-664.

Arnadottir, T. S., & Sigurdardottir, A. K. (2013). Is craniosacral therapy effective for migraine? Tested with HIT-6 Questionnaire. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 19(1), 11-14.

Assefi, N., Bogart, A., Goldberg, J., & Buchwald, D. (2008). Reiki for the treatment of fibromyalgia: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 14(9), 1115-1122.

Atkins, R. C., & Harris, P. (2008). Using reflexology to manage stress in the workplace: a preliminary study. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 14(4), 280-287.

Attlee, T. (1994). Cranio-sacral therapy and the treatment of common childhood conditions. Health Visitor, 67(7), 232-234.

Aveyard, B., Sykes, M., & Doherty, D. (2002). Therapeutic touch in dementia care. Nursing Older People, 14(6), 20-21.

Bair, C. C. (2008). The heart field effect: Synchronization of healer-subject heart rates in energy therapy. Advances in Mind-Body Medicine, 23(4), 10-19.

Baldwin, A. L., Rand, W. L., & Schwartz, G. E. (2013). Practicing Reiki does not appear to routinely produce high-intensity electromagnetic fields from the heart or hands of Reiki practitioners. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 19(6), 518-526.

Baldwin, A. L., & Schwartz, G. E. (2012). Physiological changes in energy healers during self-practice. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 20(5), 299-305.

Baldwin, A. L., Vitale, A., Brownell, E., Scicinski, J., Kearns, M., & Rand, W. (2010). The Touchstone Process: an ongoing critical evaluation of reiki in the scientific literature. Holistic Nursing Practice, 24(5), 260-276.

Baldwin, A. L., Wagers, C., & Schwartz, G. E. (2008). Reiki improves heart rate homeostasis in laboratory rats. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 14(4), 417-422.

Bamigboye, A. A., & Smyth, R. (2007). Interventions for varicose veins and leg oedema in pregnancy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews(1), CD001066.

Bao, T., Ye, X., Skinner, J., Cao, B., Fisher, J., Nesbit, S., & Grossman, S. A. (2011). The analgesic effect of magnetic acupressure in cancer patients undergoing bone marrow aspiration and biopsy: a randomized, blinded, controlled trial. Journal of Pain & Symptom Management, 41(6), 995-1002.

Barker, R., Kober, A., Hoerauf, K., Latzke, D., Adel, S., Kain, Z. N., & Wang, S. M. (2006). Out-of-hospital auricular acupressure in elder patients with hip fracture: a randomized double-blinded trial. Academic Emergency Medicine, 13(1), 19-23.

Bay, R., & Bay, F. (2011). Combined therapy using acupressure therapy, hypnotherapy, and transcendental meditation versus placebo in type 2 diabetes. Jams Journal of Acupuncture & Meridian Studies, 4(3), 183-186.

Bazarganipour, F., Lamyian, M., Heshmat, R., Abadi, M. A., & Taghavi, A. (2010). A randomized clinical trial of the efficacy of applying a simple acupressure protocol to the Taichong point in relieving dysmenorrhea. International Journal of Gynaecology & Obstetrics, 111(2), 105-109.

Beard, C., Stason, W. B., Wang, Q., Manola, J., Dean-Clower, E., Dusek, J. A., . . . Benson, H. (2011). Effects of complementary therapies on clinical outcomes in patients being treated with radiation therapy for prostate cancer. Cancer, 117(1), 96-102.

Becze, E. (2010). P6 acupressure can help patients self-manage chemotherapy-induced nausea. ONS Connect, 25(11), 20-21.

Begley, S. S. (2002). The energetic language of therapeutic touch. A holistic tool for nurse practitioners. Advance for Nurse Practitioners, 10(5), 69-71.

Benford, M. S., Talnagi, J., Doss, D. B., Boosey, S., & Arnold, L. E. (1999). Gamma radiation fluctuations during alternative healing therapy. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine, 5(4), 51-56.

Berden, M., Jerman, I., & Skarja, M. (1997). A possible physical basis for the healing touch (biotherapy) evaluated by high voltage electrophotography. Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Research, 22(2), 127-146.

Bertalanffy, P., Hoerauf, K., Fleischhackl, R., Strasser, H., Wicke, F., Greher, M., . . . Kober, A. (2004). Korean hand acupressure for motion sickness in prehospital trauma care: a prospective, randomized, double-blinded trial in a geriatric population. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 98(1), 220-223, table of contents.

Biley, F. C. (1996). Rogerian science, phantoms, and therapeutic touch: exploring potentials. Nursing Science Quarterly, 9(4), 165-169.

Birocco, N., Guillame, C., Storto, S., Ritorto, G., Catino, C., Gir, N., . . . Ciuffreda, L. (2012). The effects of Reiki therapy on pain and anxiety in patients attending a day oncology and infusion services unit. American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Medicine, 29(4), 290-294.

Bishop, E., McKinnon, E., Weir, E., & Brown, D. W. (2003). Reflexology in the management of encopresis and chronic constipation. Paediatric Nursing, 15(3), 20-21.

Bishop, F. L., Barlow, F., Walker, J., McDermott, C., & Lewith, G. T. (2010). The development and validation of an outcome measure for spiritual healing: a mixed methods study. Psychotherapy & Psychosomatics, 79(6), 350-362.

Blankfield, R. P., Sulzmann, C., Fradley, L. G., Tapolyai, A. A., & Zyzanski, S. J. (2001). Therapeutic touch in the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome. Journal of the American Board of Family Practice, 14(5), 335-342.

Bogulawski, M. (1980). Therapeutic touch: a facilitator of pain relief. Topics in Clinical Nursing, 2(1), 27-37.

Bossi, L. M., Ott, M. J., & DeCristofaro, S. (2008). Reiki as a clinical intervention in oncology nursing practice. Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing, 12(3), 489-494.

Botting, D. (1997). Review of literature on the effectiveness of reflexology. Complementary Therapies in Nursing & Midwifery, 3(5), 123-130.

Bourque, A. L., Sullivan, M. E., & Winter, M. R. (2012). Reiki as a pain management adjunct in screening colonoscopy. Gastroenterology Nursing, 35(5), 308-312.

Bowden, D., Goddard, L., & Gruzelier, J. (2010). A randomised controlled single-blind trial of the effects of Reiki and positive imagery on well-being and salivary cortisol. Brain Research Bulletin, 81(1), 66-72.

Bradley, E., & Finlay, F. (2009). Towards evidence based medicine for paediatricians. Is cranio-sacral therapy useful in the management of crying babies? Archives of Disease in Childhood, 94(7), 555-556.

Brathovde, A. (2006). A pilot study: Reiki for self-care of nurses and healthcare providers. Holistic Nursing Practice, 20(2), 95-101.

Braun, C., Layton, J., & Braun, J. (1986). Therapeutic touch improves residents’ sleep. American Health Care Association Journal, 12(1), 48-49.

Bril, V., England, J. D., Franklin, G. M., Backonja, M., Cohen, J. A., Del Toro, D. R., . . . Rehabilitation. (2011). Evidence-based guideline: treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy-report of the American Association of Neuromuscular and Electrodiagnostic Medicine, the American Academy of Neurology, and the American Academy of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation. Muscle & Nerve, 43(6), 910-917.

Brooks, A. J., Schwartz, G. E., Reece, K., & Nangle, G. (2006). The effect of Johrei healing on substance abuse recovery: a pilot study. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 12(7), 625-631.

Brown, C. A., & Lido, C. (2008). Reflexology treatment for patients with lower limb amputations and phantom limb pain–an exploratory pilot study. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 14(2), 124-131.

Bryant, J. P. (1996). Therapeutic touch in home healthcare: one nurse’s experience. Home Healthcare Nurse, 14(8), 580-586.

Brygge, T., Heinig, J. H., Collins, P., Ronborg, S., Gehrchen, P. M., Hilden, J., . . . Poulsen, L. K. (2001). Reflexology and bronchial asthma. Respiratory Medicine, 95(3), 173-179.

Bullock, M. (1997). Reiki: a complementary therapy for life. American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Medicine, 14(1), 31-33.

Bullough, V. L., & Bullough, B. (1998). Should nurses practice therapeutic touch? Should nursing schools teach therapeutic touch? Journal of Professional Nursing, 14(4), 254-257.

Burden, B., Herron-Marx, S., & Clifford, C. (2005). The increasing use of reiki as a complementary therapy in specialist palliative care. International Journal of Palliative Nursing, 11(5), 248-253.

Burr, J. P. (2005). Jayne’s story: healing touch as a complementary treatment for trauma recovery. Holistic Nursing Practice, 19(5), 211-216.

Busch, M., Visser, A., Eybrechts, M., van Komen, R., Oen, I., Olff, M., . . . Boxma, H. (2012). The implementation and evaluation of therapeutic touch in burn patients: an instructive experience of conducting a scientific study within a non-academic nursing setting. Patient Education & Counseling, 89(3), 439-446.

Can Gurkan, O., & Arslan, H. (2008). Effect of acupressure on nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 14(1), 46-52.

Castro-Sanchez, A. M., Mataran-Penarrocha, G. A., Sanchez-Labraca, N., Quesada-Rubio, J. M., Granero-Molina, J., & Moreno-Lorenzo, C. (2011). A randomized controlled trial investigating the effects of craniosacral therapy on pain and heart rate variability in fibromyalgia patients. Clinical Rehabilitation, 25(1), 25-35.

Catlin, A., & Taylor-Ford, R. L. (2011). Investigation of standard care versus sham Reiki placebo versus actual Reiki therapy to enhance comfort and well-being in a chemotherapy infusion center. Oncology Nursing Forum, 38(3), E212-220.

Cerrone, R., Giani, L., Galbiati, B., Messina, G., Casiraghi, M., Proserpio, E., . . . Gardani, G. (2008). Efficacy of HT 7 point acupressure stimulation in the treatment of insomnia in cancer patients and in patients suffering from disorders other than cancer. Minerva Medica, 99(6), 535-537.

Chang, K. K., Wong, T. K., Wong, T. H., Leung, A. W., & Chung, J. W. (2011). Effect of acupressure in treating urodynamic stress incontinence: a randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Chinese Medicine, 39(6), 1139-1159.

Chang, S. O. (2001). Meaning of Ki related to touch in caring. Holistic Nursing Practice, 16(1), 73-84.

Chang, S. O. (2003). The nature of touch therapy related to Ki: practitioners’ perspective. Nursing & Health Sciences, 5(2), 103-114.

Chao, H. L., Miao, S. J., Liu, P. F., Lee, H. H., Chen, Y. M., Yao, C. T., & Chou, H. L. (2013). The beneficial effect of ST-36 (Zusanli) acupressure on postoperative gastrointestinal function in patients with colorectal cancer. Oncology Nursing Forum, 40(2), E61-68.

Chen, C. H., Chen, H. H., Yeh, M. L., & Tsay, S. L. (2010). Effects of ear acupressure in improving visual health in children. American Journal of Chinese Medicine, 38(3), 431-439.

Chen, H. H., Yeh, M. L., & Chao, Y. H. (2006). Comparing effects of auricular acupressure with and without an internet-assisted program on smoking cessation and self-efficacy of adolescents. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 12(2), 147-152.

Chen, H. M., Chang, F. Y., & Hsu, C. T. (2005). Effect of acupressure on nausea, vomiting, anxiety and pain among post-cesarean section women in Taiwan. Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences, 21(8), 341-350.

Chen, H. M., & Chen, C. H. (2004). Effects of acupressure at the Sanyinjiao point on primary dysmenorrhoea. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 48(4), 380-387.

Chen, H. M., & Chen, C. H. (2010). Effects of acupressure on menstrual distress in adolescent girls: a comparison between Hegu-Sanyinjiao matched points and Hegu, Zusanli single point. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 19(7-8), 998-1007.

Chen, J. H., Chao, Y. H., Lu, S. F., Shiung, T. F., & Chao, Y. F. (2010). The effectiveness of valerian acupressure on the sleep of ICU patients: a randomized clinical trial. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 49(8), 913-920.

Chen, K. W., Berger, C. C., Gandhi, D., Weintraub, E., & Lejuez, C. W. (2013). Adding integrative meditation with ear acupressure to outpatient treatment of cocaine addiction: a randomized controlled pilot study. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 19(3), 204-210.

Chen, L. L., Su, Y. C., Su, C. H., Lin, H. C., & Kuo, H. W. (2008). Acupressure and meridian massage: combined effects on increasing body weight in premature infants.[Erratum appears in J Clin Nurs. 2008 Aug;17(15):2089]. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 17(9), 1174-1181.

Cho, S. H., & Hwang, E. W. (2010). Acupressure for primary dysmenorrhoea: a systematic review. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 18(1), 49-56.

Cho, Y. C., & Tsay, S. L. (2004). The effect of acupressure with massage on fatigue and depression in patients with end-stage renal disease. Journal of Nursing Research, 12(1), 51-59.

Christine, D. C. (2009). Temporal bone misalignment and motion asymmetry as a cause of vertigo: the craniosacral model. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine, 15(6), 38-42.

Chung, Y. C., Chen, H. H., & Yeh, M. L. (2012). Acupoint stimulation intervention for people with primary dysmenorrhea: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 20(5), 353-363.

Clark, P. E., & Clark, M. J. (1984). Therapeutic touch: is there a scientific basis for the practice? Nursing Research, 33(1), 37-41.

Coakley, A. B., & Barron, A. M. (2012). Energy therapies in oncology nursing. Seminars in Oncology Nursing, 28(1), 55-63.

Coakley, A. B., & Duffy, M. E. (2010). The effect of therapeutic touch on postoperative patients. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 28(3), 193-200.

Collinge, W., Wentworth, R., & Sabo, S. (2005). Integrating complementary therapies into community mental health practice: an exploration. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 11(3), 569-574.

Collins, K. B., & Thomas, D. J. (2004). Acupuncture and acupressure for the management of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 16(2), 76-80.

Connor, A., & Howett, M. (2009). A conceptual model of intentional comfort touch. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 27(2), 127-135.

Cook, C. A., Guerrerio, J. F., & Slater, V. E. (2004). Healing touch and quality of life in women receiving radiation treatment for cancer: a randomized controlled trial. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine, 10(3), 34-41.

Coppa, D. (2008). The internal process of therapeutic touch. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 26(1), 17-24.

Courcey, K. (1998). Therapeutic touch. A retrospective on therapeutic touch. Revolution, 8(3-4), 48-54.

Courcey, K. (2001). Investigating therapeutic touch. Nurse Practitioner, 26(11), 12-13.

Cox, C., & Hayes, J. (1998). Experiences of administering and receiving therapeutic touch in intensive care. Complementary Therapies in Nursing & Midwifery, 4(5), 128-132.

Cox, C., & Hayes, J. (1999). Physiologic and psychodynamic responses to the administration of therapeutic touch in critical care. Complementary Therapies in Nursing & Midwifery, 5(3), 87-92.

Cox, C. L., & Hayes, J. A. (1997). Reducing anxiety: the employment of Therapeutic Touch as a nursing intervention. Complementary Therapies in Nursing & Midwifery, 3(6), 163-167.

Cox, D. J., Singh, H., & Cox, D. M. (2011). Effectiveness of acupressure and acustimulation in minimizing driving simulation adaptation syndrome. Military Medicine, 176(12), 1440-1443.

Cox, T. (2003). A nurse-statistician reanalyzes data from the Rosa therapeutic touch study. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine, 9(1), 58-64.

Crawford, S. E., Leaver, V. W., & Mahoney, S. D. (2006). Using Reiki to decrease memory and behavior problems in mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer’s disease. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 12(9), 911-913.

Cugelman, A. (1998). Therapeutic touch: an extension of professional skills. CANNT Journal, 8(3), 30-32.

Cuneo, C. L., Curtis Cooper, M. R., Drew, C. S., Naoum-Heffernan, C., Sherman, T., Walz, K., & Weinberg, J. (2011). The effect of Reiki on work-related stress of the registered nurse. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 29(1), 33-43.

Curtis, P., Gaylord, S. A., Park, J., Faurot, K. R., Coble, R., Suchindran, C., . . . Mann, J. D. (2011). Credibility of low-strength static magnet therapy as an attention control intervention for a randomized controlled study of CranioSacral therapy for migraine headaches. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 17(8), 711-721.

Dalal, K., Devarajan, E., Pandey, R. M., Subbiah, V., & Tripathi, M. (2013). Role of reflexology and antiepileptic drugs in managing intractable epilepsy-a randomized controlled trial. Forsch Komplementmed, 20(2), 104-111. doi: 10.1159/000350047.

Daley, B. (1997). Therapeutic touch, nursing practice and contemporary cutaneous wound healing research. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 25(6), 1123-1132.

Dalglish, S. (1999). Therapeutic touch in an acute care community hospital. Canadian Nurse, 95(3), 57-58.

Danhauer, S. C., Tooze, J. A., Holder, P., Miller, C., & Jesse, M. T. (2008). Healing touch as a supportive intervention for adult acute leukemia patients: a pilot investigation of effects on distress and symptoms. Journal Of The Society For Integrative Oncology, 6(3), 89-97.

Darbandi, M., Darbandi, S., Mobarhan, M. G., Owji, A. A., Zhao, B., Iraji, K., . . . Mokarram, P. (2012). Effects of auricular acupressure combined with low-calorie diet on the leptin hormone in obese and overweight Iranian individuals. Acupuncture in Medicine, 30(3), 208-213.

Das, R., Nayak, B. S., & Margaret, B. (2011). Acupressure and physical stress among high school students. Holistic Nursing Practice, 25(2), 97-104.

Davies, E. (2000). My journey into the literature of Therapeutic Touch and Healing Touch: Part 1. Australian Journal of Holistic Nursing, 7(2), 20-28.

Davies, E. (2001). My journey into the literature of Therapeutic Touch and Healing Touch: Part 2. Australian Journal of Holistic Nursing, 8(1), 31-37.

Decker, S., Wardell, D. W., & Cron, S. G. (2012). Using a healing touch intervention in older adults with persistent pain: a feasibility study. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 30(3), 205-213.

Denison, B. (2004). Touch the pain away: new research on therapeutic touch and persons with fibromyalgia syndrome. Holistic Nursing Practice, 18(3), 142-151.

Diaz-Rodriguez, L., Arroyo-Morales, M., Cantarero-Villanueva, I., Fernandez-Lao, C., Polley, M., & Fernandez-de-las-Penas, C. (2011). The application of Reiki in nurses diagnosed with Burnout Syndrome has beneficial effects on concentration of salivary IgA and blood pressure. Revista Latino-Americana de Enfermagem, 19(5), 1132-1138.

Diaz-Rodriguez, L., Arroyo-Morales, M., Fernandez-de-las-Penas, C., Garcia-Lafuente, F., Garcia-Royo, C., & Tomas-Rojas, I. (2011). Immediate effects of reiki on heart rate variability, cortisol levels, and body temperature in health care professionals with burnout. Biological Research for Nursing, 13(4), 376-382.

Dibble, S. L., Luce, J., Cooper, B. A., Israel, J., Cohen, M., Nussey, B., & Rugo, H. (2007). Acupressure for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: a randomized clinical trial. Oncology Nursing Forum, 34(4), 813-820.

DiNucci, E. M. (2005). Energy healing: a complementary treatment for orthopaedic and other conditions. Orthopaedic Nursing, 24(4), 259-269.

Doherty, D., Wright, S., Aveyard, B., & Sykes, M. (2006). Therapeutic touch and dementia care: an ongoing journey. Nursing Older People, 18(11), 27-30.

Doran, K., & Halm, M. A. (2010). Integrating acupressure to alleviate postoperative nausea and vomiting. American Journal of Critical Care, 19(6), 553-556.

Dossey, L. (2003). Therapeutic touch at the crossroads: observations on the Rosa study. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine, 9(1), 38-39.

Dowd, T., Kolcaba, K., Steiner, R., & Fashinpaur, D. (2007). Comparison of a healing touch, coaching, and a combined intervention on comfort and stress in younger college students. Holistic Nursing Practice, 21(4), 194-202.

Dowling, J. S., & Bright, M. A. (1999). A collaborative research project on Therapeutic Touch. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 17(3), 296-307.

Downey, P. A., Barbano, T., Kapur-Wadhwa, R., Sciote, J. J., Siegel, M. I., & Mooney, M. P. (2006). Craniosacral therapy: the effects of cranial manipulation on intracranial pressure and cranial bone movement. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 36(11), 845-853.

DuBrey, R. J. (1996). Therapeutic touch: a healing intervention. Hospital uses complementary therapy to aid healing, relieve pain. Health Progress, 77(3), 46, 48.

Dullenkopf, A., Schmitz, A., Lamesic, G., Weiss, M., & Lang, A. (2004). The influence of acupressure on the monitoring of acoustic evoked potentials in unsedated adult volunteers. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 99(4), 1147-1151, table of contents.

Dune, L. (2006). Integrating tuina acupressure and traditional Chinese medicine concepts into a holistic nursing practice. Explore: The Journal of Science & Healing, 2(6), 543-546.

Dune, L. S., & Shiao, S. Y. (2006). Metaanalysis of acustimulation effects on postoperative nausea and vomiting in children. Explore: The Journal of Science & Healing, 2(4), 314-320.

Dyer, J., Thomas, K., Sandsund, C., & Shaw, C. (2013). Is reflexology as effective as aromatherapy massage for symptom relief in an adult outpatient oncology population? Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 19(3), 139-146.

Easter, A. (1997). The state of research on the effects of therapeutic touch. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 15(2), 158-175.

Ebrahim Soltani, A., Mohammadinasab, H., Goudarzi, M., Arbabi, S., Mohtaram, R., Afkham, K., . . . Darabi, M. E. (2010). Acupressure using ondansetron versus metoclopramide on reduction of postoperative nausea and vomiting after strabismus surgery. Archives of Iranian Medicine, 13(4), 288-293.

Eckes Peck, S. D. (1997). The effectiveness of therapeutic touch for decreasing pain in elders with degenerative arthritis. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 15(2), 176-198.

Elabdi, M. (1997). Therapeutic touch-registered nurses are finding positive benefits from this complementary form of healing. AARN News Letter, 53(2), 18-19.

Elden, H., Ostgaard, H. C., Glantz, A., Marciniak, P., Linner, A. C., & Olsen, M. F. (2013). Effects of craniosacral therapy as adjunct to standard treatment for pelvic girdle pain in pregnant women: a multicenter, single blind, randomized controlled trial. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 92(7), 775-782.

Elder, C., Gallison, C., Lindberg, N. M., DeBar, L., Funk, K., Ritenbaugh, C., & Stevens, V. J. (2010). Randomized trial of Tapas Acupressure Technique for weight loss maintenance: rationale and study design. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 16(6), 683-690.

Elder, C., Ritenbaugh, C., Mist, S., Aickin, M., Schneider, J., Zwickey, H., & Elmer, P. (2007). Randomized trial of two mind-body interventions for weight-loss maintenance. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 13(1), 67-78.

Elder, C. R., Gullion, C. M., Debar, L. L., Funk, K. L., Lindberg, N. M., Ritenbaugh, C., . . . Stevens, V. J. (2012). Randomized trial of Tapas Acupressure Technique for weight loss maintenance. BMC Complementary & Alternative Medicine, 12, 19.

Elliott, M. A., & Taylor, L. P. (2002). “Shiatsu sympathectomy”: ICA dissection associated with a shiatsu massager. Neurology, 58(8), 1302-1304.

Engebretson, J., & Wardell, D. W. (2002). Experience of a Reiki session. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine, 8(2), 48-53.

Engebretson, J., & Wardell, D. W. (2007). Energy-based modalities. Nursing Clinics of North America, 42(2), 243-259, vi.

Engle, V. F., & Graney, M. J. (2000). Biobehavioral effects of therapeutic touch. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 32(3), 287-293.

Ernst, E. (2009). Is reflexology an effective intervention? A systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Medical Journal of Australia, 191(5), 263-266.

Ernst, E., & Lee, M. S. (2010). Acupressure: an overview of systematic reviews. Journal of Pain & Symptom Management, 40(4), e3-7.

Ernst, E., Posadzki, P., & Lee, M. S. (2011). Reflexology: an update of a systematic review of randomised clinical trials. Maturitas, 68(2), 116-120.

Ernst, L. S. (2004). Polarity addresses the “whole” in holistic. Holistic Nursing Practice, 18(2), 63-66.

Eschiti, V. S. (2007). Healing Touch: a low-tech intervention in high-tech settings. DCCN – Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing, 26(1), 9-14.

Evanoff, A., & Newton, W. P. (1999). Therapeutic touch and osteoarthritis of the knee. Journal of Family Practice, 48(1), 11-12.

Ezzo, J., Streitberger, K., & Schneider, A. (2006). Cochrane systematic reviews examine P6 acupuncture-point stimulation for nausea and vomiting. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 12(5), 489-495.

Ezzo, J., Vickers, A., Richardson, M. A., Allen, C., Dibble, S. L., Issell, B., . . . Zhang, G. (2005). Acupuncture-point stimulation for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 23(28), 7188-7198.

Ezzo, J. M., Richardson, M. A., Vickers, A., Allen, C., Dibble, S. L., Issell, B. F., . . . Zhang, G. (2006). Acupuncture-point stimulation for chemotherapy-induced nausea or vomiting. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews(2), CD002285.

Eğlence, R., Karataş, N., & Taşci, S. (2013). The effect of acupressure on the level of fatigue in hemodialysis patients. Altern Ther Health Med, 19(6), 23-31.

Fassoulaki, A., Paraskeva, A., Kostopanagiotou, G., Tsakalozou, E., & Markantonis, S. (2007). Acupressure on the extra 1 acupoint: the effect on bispectral index, serum melatonin, plasma beta-endorphin, and stress. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 104(2), 312-317.

Fazzino, D. L., Griffin, M. T., McNulty, R. S., & Fitzpatrick, J. J. (2010). Energy healing and pain: a review of the literature. Holistic Nursing Practice, 24(2), 79-88.

Feinstein, D., & Eden, D. (2008). Six pillars of energy medicine: clinical strengths of a complementary paradigm. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine, 14(1), 44-54.

Finch, A. (1997). Therapeutic touch and wound healing. Journal of Wound Care, 6(10), 501-504.

Fischer, S., & Johnson, P. G. (1999). Therapeutic touch. A viable link to midwifery practice. Journal of Nurse-Midwifery, 44(3), 300-309.

Fish, S. (1993). Therapeutic touch: can we trust the data? Journal of Christian Nursing, 10(3), 6-8.

Fleming, D. (2003). Reiki: a gift and a skill anyone can learn. Beginnings, 23(1), 12-13.

Forbes, M. A., Rust, R., & Becker, G. J. (2004). Surface electromyography apparatus as a measurement device for biofield research: results from a single case study. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 10(4), 617-626.

France, N. E. (1993). The child’s perception of the human energy field using Therapeutic Touch. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 11(4), 319-331.

Frank, L. S., Frank, J. L., March, D., Makari-Judson, G., Barham, R. B., & Mertens, W. C. (2007). Does therapeutic touch ease the discomfort or distress of patients undergoing stereotactic core breast biopsy? A randomized clinical trial. Pain Medicine, 8(5), 419-424.

Friedman, R. S., Burg, M. M., Miles, P., Lee, F., & Lampert, R. (2010). Effects of Reiki on autonomic activity early after acute coronary syndrome. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 56(12), 995-996.

Gagne, D., & Toye, R. C. (1994). The effects of therapeutic touch and relaxation therapy in reducing anxiety. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 8(3), 184-189.

Gallob, R. (2003). Reiki: a supportive therapy in nursing practice and self-care for nurses. Journal of the New York State Nurses Association, 34(1), 9-13.

Gardani, G., Cerrone, R., Biella, C., Galbiati, G., Proserpio, E., Casiraghi, M., . . . Lissoni, P. (2007). A progress study of 100 cancer patients treated by acupressure for chemotherapy-induced vomiting after failure with the pharmacological approach. Minerva Medica, 98(6), 665-668.

Gardani, G., Cerrone, R., Biella, C., Mancini, L., Proserpio, E., Casiraghi, M., . . . Lissoni, P. (2006). Effect of acupressure on nausea and vomiting induced by chemotherapy in cancer patients. Minerva Medica, 97(5), 391-394.

Gasiorowska, A., Navarro-Rodriguez, T., Dickman, R., Wendel, C., Moty, B., Powers, J., . . . Fass, R. (2009). Clinical trial: the effect of Johrei on symptoms of patients with functional chest pain. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 29(1), 126-134.

Genc, A., Can, G., & Aydiner, A. (2013). The efficiency of the acupressure in prevention of the chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Supportive Care in Cancer, 21(1), 253-261.

Gerdner, L. A., Hart, L. K., & Zimmerman, M. B. (2008). Craniosacral still point technique: exploring its effects in individuals with dementia. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 34(3), 36-45.

Giasson, M., & Bouchard, L. (1998). Effect of therapeutic touch on the well-being of persons with terminal cancer. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 16(3), 383-398.

Gillespie, B. R. (2008). Case study in pediatric asthma: the corrective aspect of craniosacral fascial therapy. Explore: The Journal of Science & Healing, 4(1), 48-51.

Gillespie, B. R. (2009). Case study in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: the corrective aspect of craniosacral fascial therapy. Explore: The Journal of Science & Healing, 5(5), 296-298.

Gordon, A., Merenstein, J. H., D’Amico, F., & Hudgens, D. (1998). The effects of therapeutic touch on patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Journal of Family Practice, 47(4), 271-277.

Gottesman, C. (1992). Energy balancing through touch for health. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 10(4), 306-323.

Green, C., Martin, C. W., Bassett, K., & Kazanjian, A. (1999). A systematic review of craniosacral therapy: biological plausibility, assessment reliability and clinical effectiveness. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 7(4), 201-207.

Green, C. A. (1996). A reflection of a Therapeutic Touch experience: case study I. Complementary Therapies in Nursing & Midwifery, 2(5), 122-125.

Green, C. A. (1998). Reflection of a therapeutic touch experience: case study 2. Complementary Therapies in Nursing & Midwifery, 4(1), 17-21.

Greenman, P. E., & McPartland, J. M. (1995). Cranial findings and iatrogenesis from craniosacral manipulation in patients with traumatic brain syndrome. Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, 95(3), 182-188; 191-182.

Gregory, S., & Verdouw, J. (2005). Therapeutic touch: its application for residents in aged care. Australian Nursing Journal, 12(7), 23-25.

Gronowicz, G. A., Jhaveri, A., Clarke, L. W., Aronow, M. S., & Smith, T. H. (2008). Therapeutic touch stimulates the proliferation of human cells in culture. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 14(3), 233-239.

Gulmen, F. M. (2004). Energy medicine. American Journal of Chinese Medicine, 32(5), 651-658.

Gunnarsdottir, T. J., & Jonsdottir, H. (2007). Does the experimental design capture the effects of complementary therapy? A study using reflexology for patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 16(4), 777-785.

Gunnarsdottir, T. J., & Peden-McAlpine, C. (2010). Effects of reflexology on fibromyalgia symptoms: a multiple case study. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 16(3), 167-172.

Habek, D., Barbir, A., Habek, J. C., Janculiak, D., & Bobic-Vukovic, M. (2004). Success of acupuncture and acupressure of the Pc 6 acupoint in the treatment of hyperemesis gravidarum. Forschende Komplementarmedizin und Klassische Naturheilkunde, 11(1), 20-23.

Hagemaster, J. (2000). Use of therapeutic touch in treatment of drug addictions. Holistic Nursing Practice, 14(3), 14-20.
Hallett, A. (2004). Narratives of therapeutic touch. Nursing Standard, 19(1), 33-37.

Hammerschlag, R., Marx, B., Yamamoto, M., & Aickin, M. (2012). Non-touch biofield therapy: a systematic review of human randomized controlled trials reporting use of only non-physical contact treatment P02.42. BMC Complement Altern Med., 12((Suppl 1)), P98.

Hankey, A. (2004). Are we close to a theory of energy medicine? Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 10(1), 83-86.

Hanley, M. A. (2008). Therapeutic touch with preterm infants: composing a treatment. Explore: The Journal of Science & Healing, 4(4), 249-258.

Hardwick, M. E., Pulido, P. A., & Adelson, W. S. (2012). Nursing intervention using healing touch in bilateral total knee arthroplasty. Orthopaedic Nursing, 31(1), 5-11.

Harris, R. E., Jeter, J., Chan, P., Higgins, P., Kong, F. M., Fazel, R., . . . Gillespie, B. (2005). Using acupressure to modify alertness in the classroom: a single-blinded, randomized, cross-over trial. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 11(4), 673-679.

Harrison, R. E., & Page, J. S. (2011). Multipractitioner Upledger CranioSacral Therapy: descriptive outcome study 2007-2008. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 17(1), 13-17.

Hart, L. K., Freel, M. I., Haylock, P. J., & Lutgendorf, S. K. (2011). The use of healing touch in integrative oncology. Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing, 15(5), 519-525.

Hawranik, P., Johnston, P., & Deatrich, J. (2008). Therapeutic touch and agitation in individuals with Alzheimer’s disease. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 30(4), 417-434.

Heatley, D. G., McConnell, K. E., Kille, T. L., & Leverson, G. E. (2001). Nasal irrigation for the alleviation of sinonasal symptoms. Otolaryngology – Head & Neck Surgery, 125(1), 44-48.

Heazell, A., Thorneycroft, J., Walton, V., & Etherington, I. (2006). Acupressure for the in-patient treatment of nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy: a randomized control trial. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, 194(3), 815-820.

Hehir, B. (2003). Head cases: an examination of craniosacral therapy. RCM Midwives, 6(1), 38-40.

Heidt, P. (1981). Effect of therapeutic touch on anxiety level of hospitalized patients. Nursing Research, 30(1), 32-37.

Heidt, P. R. (1991). Helping patients to rest: clinical studies in therapeutic touch. Holistic Nursing Practice, 5(4), 57-66.

Helmreich, R. J., Shiao, S. Y., & Dune, L. S. (2006). Meta-analysis of acustimulation effects on nausea and vomiting in pregnant women.[Erratum appears in Explore (NY). 2007 Mar-Apr;3(2):94]. Explore: The Journal of Science & Healing, 2(5), 412-421.

Henneghan, A. M., & Schnyer, R. N. (2013). Biofield Therapies for Symptom Management in Palliative and End-of-Life Care. Am J Hosp Palliat Care. doi: 10.1177/1049909113509400

Her, J. S., Liu, P. L., Cheng, N. C., Hung, H. C., Huang, P. H., Chen, Y. L., . . . Chen, Y. H. (2010). Intraocular pressure-lowering effect of auricular acupressure in patients with glaucoma: a prospective, single-blinded, randomized controlled trial. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 16(11), 1177-1184.

Herdtner, S. (2000). Using therapeutic touch in nursing practice. Orthopaedic Nursing, 19(5), 77-82.

Herskovitz, S., Strauch, B., & Gordon, M. J. (1992). Shiatsu massage-induced injury of the median recurrent motor branch. Muscle & Nerve, 15(10), 1215.

Hibdon, S. S. (2005). Biofield considerations in cancer treatment. Seminars in Oncology Nursing, 21(3), 196-200.

Hickman, A. G., Bell, D. M., & Preston, J. C. (2005). Acupressure and postoperative nausea and vomiting. AANA Journal, 73(5), 379-385.

Hill, L., & Oliver, N. (1993). Technique integration. Therapeutic touch and theory-based mental health nursing. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing & Mental Health Services, 31(2), 18-22.

Hjelmstedt, A., Shenoy, S. T., Stener-Victorin, E., Lekander, M., Bhat, M., Balakumaran, L., & Waldenstrom, U. (2010). Acupressure to reduce labor pain: a randomized controlled trial. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 89(11), 1453-1459.

Ho, C. M., Tsai, H. J., Chan, K. H., & Tsai, S. K. (2006). P6 acupressure does not prevent emesis during spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 102(3), 900-903.

Hodgson, H. (2000). Does reflexology impact on cancer patients’ quality of life? Nursing Standard, 14(31), 33-38.

Hodgson, N. A., & Andersen, S. (2008). The clinical efficacy of reflexology in nursing home residents with dementia. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 14(3), 269-275.

Hofer, W., & Bruni, N. (2002). Pranic healing: an energy-based healing practice for the contemporary nurse. Australian Journal of Holistic Nursing, 9(1), 22-32.

Hoffman, M. J. (1998). Therapeutic touch is back. Caring, 17(4), 26-28, 30.

Holt, J., Lord, J., Acharya, U., White, A., O’Neill, N., Shaw, S., & Barton, A. (2009). The effectiveness of foot reflexology in inducing ovulation: a sham-controlled randomized trial. Fertility & Sterility, 91(6), 2514-2519.

Honda, N., Ohgi, S., Wada, N., Loo, K. K., Higashimoto, Y., & Fukuda, K. (2013). Effect of therapeutic touch on brain activation of preterm infants in response to sensory punctate stimulus: a near-infrared spectroscopy-based study. Archives of Disease in Childhood Fetal & Neonatal Edition, 98(3), F244-248.

Hover-Kramer, D. (1998). Touch therapies in the perioperative environment: human connecting for enhanced healing. Seminars in Perioperative Nursing, 7(2), 101-107.

Hsieh, C. H. (2010). The effects of auricular acupressure on weight loss and serum lipid levels in overweight adolescents. American Journal of Chinese Medicine, 38(4), 675-682.

Hsieh, C. H., Su, T. J., Fang, Y. W., & Chou, P. H. (2011). Effects of auricular acupressure on weight reduction and abdominal obesity in Asian young adults: a randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Chinese Medicine, 39(3), 433-440.

Hsieh, L. L., Kuo, C. H., Lee, L. H., Yen, A. M., Chien, K. L., & Chen, T. H. (2006). Treatment of low back pain by acupressure and physical therapy: randomised controlled trial. BMJ, 332(7543), 696-700.

Hsieh, L. L., Kuo, C. H., Yen, M. F., & Chen, T. H. (2004). A randomized controlled clinical trial for low back pain treated by acupressure and physical therapy. Preventive Medicine, 39(1), 168-176.

Hsieh, L. L., Liou, H. H., Lee, L. H., Chen, T. H., & Yen, A. M. (2010). Effect of acupressure and trigger points in treating headache: a randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Chinese Medicine, 38(1), 1-14.

Hsiu, H., Hsu, W. C., Chen, B. H., & Hsu, C. L. (2010). Differences in the microcirculatory effects of local skin surface contact pressure stimulation between acupoints and nonacupoints: possible relevance to acupressure. Physiological Measurement, 31(6), 829-841.

Huebscher, R. (1999). Therapeutic touch–what is the controversy and why does controversy exist? Nurse Practitioner Forum, 10(2), 43-46.

Huff, M. B., McClanahan, K. K., & Omar, H. A. (2006). From healing the whole person: an argument for therapeutic touch as a complement to traditional medical practice. Thescientificworldjournal, 6, 2188-2195.

Hughes, C. M., Krirsnakriengkrai, S., Kumar, S., & McDonough, S. M. (2011). The effect of reflexology on the autonomic nervous system in healthy adults: a feasibility study. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine, 17(3), 32-37.

Hughes, C. M., McCullough, C. A., Bradbury, I., Boyde, C., Hume, D., Yuan, J., . . . McDonough, S. M. (2009). Acupuncture and reflexology for insomnia: a feasibility study. Acupuncture in Medicine, 27(4), 163-168.

Hughes, C. M., Smyth, S., & Lowe-Strong, A. S. (2009). Reflexology for the treatment of pain in people with multiple sclerosis: a double-blind randomised sham-controlled clinical trial. Multiple Sclerosis, 15(11), 1329-1338.

Hughes, P. P., Meize-Grochowski, R., & Harris, C. N. (1996). Therapeutic touch with adolescent psychiatric patients. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 14(1), 6-23.

Hulse, R. S., Stuart-Shor, E. M., & Russo, J. (2010). Endoscopic procedure with a modified Reiki intervention: a pilot study. Gastroenterology Nursing, 33(1), 20-26.

Huntley, A., & Ernst, E. (2000). Complementary and alternative therapies for treating multiple sclerosis symptoms: a systematic review. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 8(2), 97-105.

Im, H., Kim, E., & Cain, K. C. (2009). Acute effects of Yakson and Gentle Human Touch on the behavioral state of preterm infants. Journal of Child Health Care, 13(3), 212-226.

Im, H., Kim, E., Park, E., Sung, K., & Oh, W. (2008). Pain reduction of heel stick in neonates: Yakson compared to non-nutritive sucking. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, 54(1), 31-35.

Ingram, J., Domagala, C., & Yates, S. (2005). The effects of shiatsu on post-term pregnancy. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 13(1), 11-15.

Ireland, M. (1998). Therapeutic touch with HIV-infected children: a pilot study. Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 9(4), 68-77.

Ireland, M., & Olson, M. (2000). Massage therapy and therapeutic touch in children: state of the science. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine, 6(5), 54-63.

Irmak, M. K. (2010). Multifunctional Merkel cells: their roles in electromagnetic reception, finger-print formation, Reiki, epigenetic inheritance and hair form. Medical Hypotheses, 75(2), 162-168.

Jackson, E., Kelley, M., McNeil, P., Meyer, E., Schlegel, L., & Eaton, M. (2008). Does therapeutic touch help reduce pain and anxiety in patients with cancer? Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing, 12(1), 113-120.

Jain, S., McMahon, G. F., Hasen, P., Kozub, M. P., Porter, V., King, R., & Guarneri, E. M. (2012). Healing Touch with Guided Imagery for PTSD in returning active duty military: a randomized controlled trial. Military Medicine, 177(9), 1015-1021.

Jain, S., & Mills, P. J. (2010). Biofield therapies: helpful or full of hype? A best evidence synthesis. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 17(1), 1-16.

Jain, S., Pavlik, D., Distefan, J., Bruyere, R. L., Acer, J., Garcia, R., . . . Mills, P. J. (2012). Complementary medicine for fatigue and cortisol variability in breast cancer survivors: a randomized controlled trial. Cancer, 118(3), 777-787.

Jakel, A., & von Hauenschild, P. (2011). Therapeutic effects of cranial osteopathic manipulative medicine: a systematic review. Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, 111(12), 685-693.

Jakel, A., & von Hauenschild, P. (2012). A systematic review to evaluate the clinical benefits of craniosacral therapy. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 20(6), 456-465.

Jamigorn, M., & Phupong, V. (2007). Acupressure and vitamin B6 to relieve nausea and vomiting in pregnancy: a randomized study. Archives of Gynecology & Obstetrics, 276(3), 245-249.

Jhaveri, A., Walsh, S. J., Wang, Y., McCarthy, M., & Gronowicz, G. (2008). Therapeutic touch affects DNA synthesis and mineralization of human osteoblasts in culture. Journal of Orthopaedic Research, 26(11), 1541-1546.

Jin, K. K., Chen, L., Pan, J. Y., Li, J. M., Wang, Y., & Wang, F. Y. (2009). Acupressure therapy inhibits the development of diabetic complications in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 15(9), 1027-1032.

Johns, C., Blake, D., & Sinclair, A. (2010). Can reflexology maintain or improve the well-being of people with Parkinson’s Disease? Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 16(2), 96-100.

Johnston, C., Campbell-Yeo, M., Rich, B., Whitley, J., Filion, F., Cogan, J., & Walker, C. D. (2013). Therapeutic touch is not therapeutic for procedural pain in very preterm neonates: a randomized trial. Clin J Pain, 29(9), 824-829. doi: 10.1097/AJP.0b013e3182757650.

Jonasen, A. M. (1994). Therapeutic touch. A holistic approach to perioperative nursing (continuing education credit). Todays Or-Nurse, 16(1), 7-12; quiz 50-11.

Jones, E., Isom, S., Kemper, K. J., & McLean, T. W. (2008). Acupressure for chemotherapy-associated nausea and vomiting in children. Journal Of The Society For Integrative Oncology, 6(4), 141-145.

Jones, J., Thomson, P., Irvine, K., & Leslie, S. J. (2013). Is there a specific hemodynamic effect in reflexology? A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 19(4), 319-328.

Jones, J., Thomson, P., Lauder, W., Howie, K., & Leslie, S. J. (2012). Reflexology has an acute (immediate) haemodynamic effect in healthy volunteers: a double-blind randomised controlled trial. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 18(4), 204-211.

Jones, J., Thomson, P., Lauder, W., Howie, K., & Leslie, S. J. (2013). Reflexology has no immediate haemodynamic effect in patients with chronic heart failure: a double blind randomised controlled trial. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 19(3), 133-138.

Jun, E. M., Chang, S., Kang, D. H., & Kim, S. (2007). Effects of acupressure on dysmenorrhea and skin temperature changes in college students: a non-randomized controlled trial. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 44(6), 973-981.

Kang, H. S., Sok, S. R., & Kang, J. S. (2009). Effects of Meridian acupressure for stroke patients in Korea. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 18(15), 2145-2152.

Kannathal, N., Paul, J. K., Lim, C. M., & Chua, K. P. (2004). Effect of reflexology on EEG-a nonlinear approach. American Journal of Chinese Medicine, 32(4), 641-650.

Kashefi, F., Khajehei, M., Ashraf, A. R., & Jafari, P. (2011). The efficacy of acupressure at the Sanyinjiao point in the improvement of women’s general health. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 17(12), 1141-1147.

Kashefi, F., Ziyadlou, S., Khajehei, M., Ashraf, A. R., Fadaee, A. R., & Jafari, P. (2010). Effect of acupressure at the Sanyinjiao point on primary dysmenorrhea: a randomized controlled trial. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 16(4), 198-202.

Keller, E., & Bzdek, V. M. (1986). Effects of therapeutic touch on tension headache pain. Nursing Research, 35(2), 101-106.

Kelley, M. (2002). Strategies for innovative energy-based nursing practice: the Healing Touch program. Sci Nursing, 19(3), 117-124.

Kelly, A. E., Sullivan, P., Fawcett, J., & Samarel, N. (2004). Therapeutic touch, quiet time, and dialogue: perceptions of women with breast cancer. Oncology Nursing Forum, 31(3), 625-631.

Kemper, K. J., Fletcher, N. B., Hamilton, C. A., & McLean, T. W. (2009). Impact of healing touch on pediatric oncology outpatients: pilot study. Journal Of The Society For Integrative Oncology, 7(1), 12-18.

Kemper, K. J., & Kelly, E. A. (2004). Treating children with therapeutic and healing touch. Pediatric Annals, 33(4), 248-252.

Kennedy, P. (2001). Working with survivors of torture in Sarajevo with Reiki. Complementary Therapies in Nursing & Midwifery, 7(1), 4-7.

Kenosian, C. V. (1995). Wound healing with noncontact therapeutic touch used as an adjunct therapy. Journal of Wound, Ostomy, & Continence Nursing, 22(2), 95-99.

Kiernan, J. (2002). The experience of Therapeutic Touch in the lives of five postpartum women. MCN, American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing, 27(1), 47-53.

Kilic Akca, N., Tasci, S., & Karatas, N. (2013). Effect of acupressure on patients in Turkey receiving hemodialysis treatment for uremic pruritus. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine, 19(5), 12-18.

Kim, J. I., Lee, M. S., Kang, J. W., Choi do, Y., & Ernst, E. (2010). Reflexology for the symptomatic treatment of breast cancer: a systematic review. Integrative Cancer Therapies, 9(4), 326-330.

Kim, K. H., Lee, M. S., Kang, K. W., & Choi, S. M. (2010). Role of acupressure in symptom management in patients with end-stage renal disease: a systematic review. Journal of Palliative Medicine, 13(7), 885-892.

King, C. E. (2000). Healing pathways through energy work in the perianesthesia care setting. CRNA, 11(4), 180-185.

King, R. P. (2005). The integration of healing touch with conventional care at the Scripps Center for Integrative Medicine. Explore: The Journal of Science & Healing, 1(2), 144-145.

Klaiman, P., Sternfeld, M., Deeb, Z., Roth, Y., Golan, A., Ezri, T., & Azamfirei, L. (2008). Magnetic acupressure for management of postoperative nausea and vomiting: a preliminary study. Minerva Anestesiologica, 74(11), 635-642.

Klein, A. A., Djaiani, G., Karski, J., Carroll, J., Karkouti, K., McCluskey, S., . . . Cheng, D. (2004). Acupressure wristbands for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in adults undergoing cardiac surgery. Journal of Cardiothoracic & Vascular Anesthesia, 18(1), 68-71.

Klein, J., & Griffiths, P. (2004). Acupressure for nausea and vomiting in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. British Journal of Community Nursing, 9(9), 383-388.

Kohara, H., Miyauchi, T., Suehiro, Y., Ueoka, H., Takeyama, H., & Morita, T. (2004). Combined modality treatment of aromatherapy, footsoak, and reflexology relieves fatigue in patients with cancer. Journal of Palliative Medicine, 7(6), 791-796.

Korn, L., Logsdon, R. G., Polissar, N. L., Gomez-Beloz, A., Waters, T., & Ryser, R. (2009). A randomized trial of a CAM therapy for stress reduction in American Indian and Alaskan Native family caregivers. Gerontologist, 49(3), 368-377.

Korotkov, K., Shelkov, O., Shevtsov, A., Mohov, D., Paoletti, S., Mirosnichenko, D., . . . Robertson, L. (2012). Stress reduction with osteopathy assessed with GDV electrophotonic imaging: effects of osteopathy treatment. [Erratum appears in J Altern Complement Med. 2012 Sep;18(9):887]. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 18(3), 251-257.

Kotora, J. (1997). Therapeutic touch can augment traditional therapies. Oncology Nursing Forum, 24(8), 1329-1330.
Kramer, N. A. (1990). Comparison of therapeutic touch and casual touch in stress reduction of hospitalized children. Pediatric Nursing, 16(5), 483-485.

Krieger, D. (1990). Therapeutic touch: two decades of research, teaching and clinical practice. Imprint, 37(3), 83, 86-88.

Krieger, D., Peper, E., & Ancoli, S. (1979). Therapeutic touch: searching for evidence of physiological change. American Journal of Nursing, 79(4), 660-662.

Krug, P., Kramer, D., Bukatman, R., Gordon, P., & Mermelstein, P. (2013). Energy dialogue technique in healing and health: relieving side effects and thyroid dysfunction in a male with hemophilia receiving pegylated interferon and ribavirin treatment for hepatitis C virus-an anecdotal case study. J Holist Nurs, 31(3), 204-213. doi: 10.1177/0898010113488992.

Kryak, E., & Vitale, A. (2011). Reiki and its journey into a hospital setting. Holistic Nursing Practice, 25(5), 238-245.

Kundu, A., Dolan-Oves, R., Dimmers, M. A., Towle, C. B., & Doorenbos, A. Z. (2013). Reiki training for caregivers of hospitalized pediatric patients: a pilot program. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 19(1), 50-54.

Kung, Y. Y., Yang, C. C., Chiu, J. H., & Kuo, T. B. (2011). The relationship of subjective sleep quality and cardiac autonomic nervous system in postmenopausal women with insomnia under auricular acupressure. Menopause, 18(6), 638-645.

Lafreniere, K. D., Mutus, B., Cameron, S., Tannous, M., Giannotti, M., Abu-Zahra, H., & Laukkanen, E. (1999). Effects of therapeutic touch on biochemical and mood indicators in women. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 5(4), 367-370.

Laidlaw, T. M., Naito, A., Dwivedi, P., Hansi, N. K., Henderson, D. C., & Gruzelier, J. H. (2006). The influence of 10 min of the Johrei healing method on laboratory stress. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 14(2), 127-132.

Lang, T., Hager, H., Funovits, V., Barker, R., Steinlechner, B., Hoerauf, K., & Kober, A. (2007). Prehospital analgesia with acupressure at the Baihui and Hegu points in patients with radial fractures: a prospective, randomized, double-blind trial. American Journal of Emergency Medicine, 25(8), 887-893.

Larden, C. N., Palmer, M. L., & Janssen, P. (2004). Efficacy of therapeutic touch in treating pregnant inpatients who have a chemical dependency. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 22(4), 320-332.

LaTorre, M. A. (2005). The use of Reiki in psychotherapy. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, 41(4), 184-187.

Leder, D., & Krucoff, M. W. (2008). The touch that heals: the uses and meanings of touch in the clinical
encounter. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 14(3), 321-327.

Leduc, E. (1987). Therapeutic touch. Neonatal Network – Journal of Neonatal Nursing, 5(6), 46-47.

Ledwith, S. P. (1995). Therapeutic touch and mastectomy: a case study. RN, 58(7), 51-53.

Lee, A., & Done, M. L. (2004). Stimulation of the wrist acupuncture point P6 for preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews(3), CD003281.

Lee, A., & Fan, L. T. (2009). Stimulation of the wrist acupuncture point P6 for preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews(2), CD003281.

Lee, E. J., & Frazier, S. K. (2011). The efficacy of acupressure for symptom management: a systematic review. Journal of Pain & Symptom Management, 42(4), 589-603.

Lee, H. Y., Hale, C. A., Hemingway, B., & Woolridge, M. W. (2012). Tai Chi exercise and auricular acupressure for people with rheumatoid arthritis: an evaluation study. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 21(19-20), 2812-2822.

Lee, J., Dibble, S., Dodd, M., Abrams, D., & Burns, B. (2010). The relationship of chemotherapy-induced nausea to the frequency of pericardium 6 digital acupressure. Oncology Nursing Forum, 37(6), E419-425.

Lee, J., Dodd, M., Dibble, S., & Abrams, D. (2008). Review of acupressure studies for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting control. Journal of Pain & Symptom Management, 36(5), 529-544.

Lee, J., Han, M., Chung, Y., Kim, J., & Choi, J. (2011). Effects of foot reflexology on fatigue, sleep and pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing, 41(6), 821-833.

Lee, J. S., Lee, M. S., Min, K., Lew, J. H., & Lee, B. J. (2011). Acupressure for treating neurological disorders: a systematic review. International Journal of Neuroscience, 121(8), 409-414.

Lee, K. C., Keyes, A., Hensley, J. R., Gordon, J. R., Kwasny, M. J., West, D. P., & Lio, P. A. (2012). Effectiveness of acupressure on pruritus and lichenification associated with atopic dermatitis: a pilot trial. Acupuncture in Medicine, 30(1), 8-11.

Lee, M. K., Chang, S. B., & Kang, D. H. (2004). Effects of SP6 acupressure on labor pain and length of delivery time in women during labor. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 10(6), 959-965.

Lee, M. S., Pittler, M. H., & Ernst, E. (2008). Effects of reiki in clinical practice: a systematic review of randomised clinical trials. International Journal of Clinical Practice, 62(6), 947-954.

Lee, M. S., Pittler, M. H., & Ernst, E. (2009). Internal qigong for pain conditions: a systematic review. Journal of Pain, 10(11), 1121-1127.e1114.

Leskowitz, E. D. (2000). Phantom limb pain treated with therapeutic touch: a case report. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, 81(4), 522-524.

Leung, L., Neufeld, T., & Marin, S. (2012). Effect of self-administered auricular acupressure on smoking cessation-a pilot study. BMC Complementary & Alternative Medicine, 12, 11.

Levin, J., & Mead, L. (2008). Bioenergy healing: a theoretical model and case series. Explore: The Journal of Science & Healing, 4(3), 201-209.

Li, C. Y., Chen, S. C., Gau, M. L., & Huang, C. M. (2011). Randomised controlled trial of the effectiveness of using foot reflexology to improve quality of sleep amongst Taiwanese postpartum women. Midwifery, 27(2), 181-186.

Li, X., Hirokawa, M., Inoue, Y., Sugano, N., Qian, S., & Iwai, T. (2007). Effects of acupressure on lower limb blood flow for the treatment of peripheral arterial occlusive diseases. Surgery Today, 37(2), 103-108.

Liang, C. K., Ho, T. Y., Li, T. C., Hsu, W. M., Li, T. M., Lee, Y. C., . . . Chang, S. L. (2008). A combined therapy using stimulating auricular acupoints enhances lower-level atropine eyedrops when used for myopia control in school-aged children evaluated by a pilot randomized controlled clinical trial. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 16(6), 305-310.

Lichtenberg, P., Vass, A., Ptaya, H., Edelman, S., & Heresco-Levy, U. (2009). Shiatsu as an adjuvant therapy for schizophrenia: an open-label pilot study. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine, 15(5), 44-46.

Lin, J. A., Wong, C. S., Lee, M. S., Ko, S. C., Chan, S. M., Chen, J. J., & Chen, T. L. (2010). Successful treatment of primary dysmenorrhea by collateral meridian acupressure therapy. Journal of Manipulative & Physiological Therapeutics, 33(1), 70-75.

Lin, L. C., Yang, M. H., Kao, C. C., Wu, S. C., Tang, S. H., & Lin, J. G. (2009). Using acupressure and Montessori-based activities to decrease agitation for residents with dementia: a cross-over trial. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 57(6), 1022-1029.

Liodden, I., Howley, M., Grimsgaard, A. S., Fonnebo, V. M., Borud, E. K., Alraek, T., & Norheim, A. J. (2011). Perioperative acupuncture and postoperative acupressure can prevent postoperative vomiting following paediatric tonsillectomy or adenoidectomy: a pragmatic randomised controlled trial. Acupuncture in Medicine, 29(1), 9-15.

Liu, C. F., Yu, L. F., Lin, C. H., & Lin, S. C. (2008). Effect of auricular pellet acupressure on antioxidative systems in high-risk diabetes mellitus. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 14(3), 303-307.

Long, A. F. (2008). The effectiveness of shiatsu: findings from a cross-European, prospective observational study.[Erratum appears in J Altern Complement Med. 2008 Nov;14(9):1175]. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 14(8), 921-930.

Long, A. F. (2009). The potential of complementary and alternative medicine in promoting well-being and critical health literacy: a prospective, observational study of shiatsu. BMC Complementary & Alternative Medicine, 9, 19.

Long, A. F., Esmonde, L., & Connolly, S. (2009). A typology of negative responses: a case study of shiatsu. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 17(3), 168-175.

Lotan, M. (2007). Alternative therapeutic intervention for individuals with Rett syndrome. Thescientificworldjournal, 7, 698-714.

Lowry, R. C. (2002). The effect of an educational intervention on willingness to receive therapeutic touch. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 20(1), 48-60.

Lu, M. J., Lin, S. T., Chen, K. M., Tsang, H. Y., & Su, S. F. (2013). Acupressure improves sleep quality of psychogeriatric inpatients. Nursing Research, 62(2), 130-137.

Lu, W. A., Chen, G. Y., & Kuo, C. D. (2011). Foot reflexology can increase vagal modulation, decrease sympathetic modulation, and lower blood pressure in healthy subjects and patients with coronary artery disease. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine, 17(4), 8-14.

Luskin, F. M., Newell, K. A., Griffith, M., Holmes, M., Telles, S., DiNucci, E., . . . Haskell, W. L. (2000). A review of mind/body therapies in the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders with implications for the elderly. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine, 6(2), 46-56.

Lutgendorf, S. K., Mullen-Houser, E., Russell, D., Degeest, K., Jacobson, G., Hart, L., . . . Lubaroff, D. M. (2010). Preservation of immune function in cervical cancer patients during chemoradiation using a novel integrative approach. Brain, Behavior, & Immunity, 24(8), 1231-1240.

Maa, S. H., Tsou, T. S., Wang, K. Y., Wang, C. H., Lin, H. C., & Huang, Y. H. (2007). Self-administered acupressure reduces the symptoms that limit daily activities in bronchiectasis patients: pilot study findings. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 16(4), 794-804.

MacIntyre, B., Hamilton, J., Fricke, T., Ma, W., Mehle, S., & Michel, M. (2008). The efficacy of healing touch in coronary artery bypass surgery recovery: a randomized clinical trial. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine, 14(4), 24-32.

Mackay, N., Hansen, S., & McFarlane, O. (2004). Autonomic nervous system changes during Reiki treatment: a preliminary study. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 10(6), 1077-1081.

Mackereth, P., Dryden, S. L., & Frankel, B. (2000). Reflexology: recent research approaches. Complementary Therapies in Nursing & Midwifery, 6(2), 66-71.

Mackereth, P., & Wright, J. (1997). Therapeutic touch: nursing activity or form of spiritual healing? Complementary Therapies in Nursing & Midwifery, 3(4), 106-110.

Mackereth, P. A., Booth, K., Hillier, V. F., & Caress, A. L. (2009). Reflexology and progressive muscle relaxation training for people with multiple sclerosis: a crossover trial. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 15(1), 14-21.

Madrid, M., & Winstead-Fry, P. (2001). Nursing research on the health patterning modalities of therapeutic touch and imagery. Nursing Science Quarterly, 14(3), 187-193; discussion 194.

Madrid, M. M., Barrett, E. A., & Winstead-Fry, P. (2010). A study of the feasibility of introducing therapeutic touch into the operative environment with patients undergoing cerebral angiography. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 28(3), 168-174.

Magill, L., & Berenson, S. (2008). The conjoint use of music therapy and reflexology with hospitalized advanced stage cancer patients and their families. Palliative & Supportive Care, 6(3), 289-296.

Majholm, B., & Moller, A. M. (2011). Acupressure at acupoint P6 for prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting: a randomised clinical trial. European Journal of Anaesthesiology, 28(6), 412-419.

Mak, H. L., Cheon, W. C., Wong, T., Liu, Y. S., & Tong, W. M. (2007). Randomized controlled trial of foot reflexology for patients with symptomatic idiopathic detrusor overactivity. International Urogynecology Journal, 18(6), 653-658.

Mann, J. D., Faurot, K. R., Wilkinson, L., Curtis, P., Coeytaux, R. R., Suchindran, C., & Gaylord, S. A. (2008). Craniosacral therapy for migraine: protocol development for an exploratory controlled clinical trial. BMC Complementary & Alternative Medicine, 8, 28.

Mansour, A. A., Beuche, M., Laing, G., Leis, A., & Nurse, J. (1999). A study to test the effectiveness of placebo Reiki standardization procedures developed for a planned Reiki efficacy study. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 5(2), 153-164.

Marcus, D. A., Blazek-O’Neill, B., & Kopar, J. L. (2013). Symptomatic improvement reported after receiving Reiki at a cancer infusion center. Am J Hosp Palliat Care, 30(2), 216-217. doi: 10.1177/1049909112469275.

Markose, M. T., Ramanathan, K., & Vijayakumar, J. (2004). Reduction of nausea, vomiting, and dry retches with P6 acupressure during pregnancy. International Journal of Gynaecology & Obstetrics, 85(2), 168-169.

Maville, J. A., Bowen, J. E., & Benham, G. (2008). Effect of Healing Touch on stress perception and biological correlates. Holistic Nursing Practice, 22(2), 103-110.

McCormack, G. L. (2009). Using non-contact therapeutic touch to manage post-surgical pain in the elderly. Occupational Therapy International, 16(1), 44-56.

McDougall, G. J. (2005). Research review: the effect of acupressure with massage on fatigue and depression in patients with end-stage renal disease. Geriatric Nursing, 26(3), 164-165.

McElroy-Cox, C. (2009). Alternative approaches to epilepsy treatment. Current Neurology & Neuroscience Reports, 9(4), 313-318.

McFadden, K. L., Healy, K. M., Dettmann, M. L., Kaye, J. T., Ito, T. A., & Hernandez, T. D. (2011). Acupressure as a non-pharmacological intervention for traumatic brain injury (TBI). Journal of Neurotrauma, 28(1), 21-34.

McFadden, K. L., & Hernandez, T. D. (2010). Cardiovascular benefits of acupressure (Jin Shin) following stroke. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 18(1), 42-48.

McNeill, J. A., Alderdice, F. A., & McMurray, F. (2006). A retrospective cohort study exploring the relationship between antenatal reflexology and intranatal outcomes. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 12(2), 119-125.

McVicar, A. J., Greenwood, C. R., Fewell, F., D’Arcy, V., Chandrasekharan, S., & Alldridge, L. C. (2007). Evaluation of anxiety, salivary cortisol and melatonin secretion following reflexology treatment: a pilot study in healthy individuals. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 13(3), 137-145.

Meehan, T. C. (1993). Therapeutic touch and postoperative pain: a Rogerian research study. Nursing Science Quarterly, 6(2), 69-78.

Meehan, T. C. (1998). Therapeutic touch as a nursing intervention. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 28(1), 117-125.

Mehl-Madrona, L., Kligler, B., Silverman, S., Lynton, H., & Merrell, W. (2007). The impact of acupuncture and craniosacral therapy interventions on clinical outcomes in adults with asthma. Explore: The Journal of Science & Healing, 3(1), 28-36.

Meland, B. (2009). Effects of Reiki on pain and anxiety in the elderly diagnosed with dementia: a series of case reports. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine, 15(4), 56-57.

Melchart, D., Ihbe-Heffinger, A., Leps, B., von Schilling, C., & Linde, K. (2006). Acupuncture and acupressure for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea–a randomised cross-over pilot study. Supportive Care in Cancer, 14(8), 878-882.

Mentgen, J. (1996). The clinical practice of healing touch. Imprint, 43(5), 33-36.
Mentgen, J. L. (2001). Healing touch. Nursing Clinics of North America, 36(1), 143-158.

Mikobi, M., & Suzuki, K. (2012). Effectiveness of biofield therapy for patients with sickle cell disease in Africa P02.153. BMC Complement Altern Med., 12((Suppl 1)), P209.

Miles, P. (2003). Preliminary report on the use of Reiki HIV-related pain and anxiety. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine, 9(2), 36.

Miles, P. (2005). If there is any significant experience with using Reiki in the hospital or ER setting and if there is any literature to support this use? Explore: The Journal of Science & Healing, 1(5), 414.

Miles, P. (2007). Reiki for mind, body, and spirit support of cancer patients. Advances in Mind-Body Medicine, 22(2), 20-26.

Miles, P., & True, G. (2003). Reiki-review of a biofield therapy history, theory, practice, and research. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine, 9(2), 62-72.

Miller, K. E., & Muth, E. R. (2004). Efficacy of acupressure and acustimulation bands for the prevention of motion sickness. Aviation Space & Environmental Medicine, 75(3), 227-234.

Miller, L., McIntee, E., & Mattison, P. (2013). Evaluation of the effects of reflexology on quality of life and symptomatic relief in multiple sclerosis patients with moderate to severe disability; a pilot study. Clin Rehabil, 27(7), 591-598. doi: 10.1177/0269215512469383

Miller, L. A. (1979). An explanation of therapeutic touch using the science of unitary man. Nursing Forum, 18(3), 278-287.

Mills, P. J., & Jain, S. (2010). Biofield therapies and psychoneuroimmunology. Brain, Behavior, & Immunity, 24(8), 1229-1230.

Mirbagher-Ajorpaz, N., Adib-Hajbaghery, M., & Mosaebi, F. (2011). The effects of acupressure on primary dysmenorrhea: a randomized controlled trial. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 17(1), 33-36.

Miura, N., Akitsuki, Y., Sekiguchi, A., & Kawashima, R. (2013). Activity in the primary somatosensory cortex induced by reflexological stimulation is unaffected by pseudo-information: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study. BMC Complementary & Alternative Medicine, 13, 114.

Molassiotis, A., Helin, A. M., Dabbour, R., & Hummerston, S. (2007). The effects of P6 acupressure in the prophylaxis of chemotherapy-related nausea and vomiting in breast cancer patients. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 15(1), 3-12.

Molassiotis, A., Sylt, P., & Diggins, H. (2007). The management of cancer-related fatigue after chemotherapy with acupuncture and acupressure: a randomised controlled trial. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 15(4), 228-237.

Mollart, L. (2003). Single-blind trial addressing the differential effects of two reflexology techniques versus rest, on ankle and foot oedema in late pregnancy. Complementary Therapies in Nursing & Midwifery, 9(4), 203-208.

Monroe, C. M. (2009). The effects of therapeutic touch on pain. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 27(2), 85-92.

Monzillo, E., & Gronowicz, G. (2011). New insights on therapeutic touch: a discussion of experimental methodology and design that resulted in significant effects on normal human cells and osteosarcoma. Explore: The Journal of Science & Healing, 7(1), 44-51.

Moore, T., Ting, B., & Rossiter-Thornton, M. (2008). A pilot study of the experience of participating in a Therapeutic Touch practice group. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 26(3), 161-168; discussion 169-172.

Mora, B., Iannuzzi, M., Lang, T., Steinlechner, B., Barker, R., Dobrovits, M., . . . Kober, A. (2007). Auricular acupressure as a treatment for anxiety before extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in the elderly. Journal of Urology, 178(1), 160-164; discussion 164.

Morris, D. (2006). Pilot study using reflexology. Beginnings, 26(5), 28-29.

Morse, M. L., & Beem, L. W. (2011). Benefits of Reiki therapy for a severely neutropenic patient with associated influences on a true random number generator. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 17(12), 1181-1190.

Movaffaghi, Z., & Farsi, M. (2009). Biofield therapies: biophysical basis and biological regulations? Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 15(1), 35-37.

Muliira, J. K., & Muliira, R. S. (2013). Teaching culturally appropriate therapeutic touch to nursing students in the Sultanate of Oman: reflections on observations and experiences with Muslim patients. Holistic Nursing Practice, 27(1), 45-48.

Mulloney, S. S., & Wells-Federman, C. (1996). Therapeutic touch: a healing modality. Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, 10(3), 27-49.

Mustian, K. M., Roscoe, J. A., Palesh, O. G., Sprod, L. K., Heckler, C. E., Peppone, L. J., . . . Morrow, G. R. (2011). Polarity Therapy for cancer-related fatigue in patients with breast cancer receiving radiation therapy: a randomized controlled pilot study. Integrative Cancer Therapies, 10(1), 27-37.

Naito, A., Laidlaw, T. M., Henderson, D. C., Farahani, L., Dwivedi, P., & Gruzelier, J. H. (2003). The impact of self-hypnosis and Johrei on lymphocyte subpopulations at exam time: a controlled study. Brain Research Bulletin, 62(3), 241-253.

Nakamaru, T., Miura, N., Fukushima, A., & Kawashima, R. (2008). Somatotopical relationships between cortical activity and reflex areas in reflexology: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Neuroscience Letters, 448(1), 6-9.

Nelson, L. A., & Schwartz, G. E. (2005). Human biofield and intention detection: individual differences. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 11(1), 93-101.

Nemeth, L. (2008). Energy and biofield therapies in practice. Beginnings, 28(3), 4-5.

Newbold, D., & Roberts, J. (2007). An analysis of the demarcation problem in science and its application to therapeutic touch theory. International Journal of Nursing Practice, 13(6), 324-330.

Newshan, G. (1989). Therapeutic touch for symptom control in persons with AIDS. Holistic Nursing Practice, 3(4), 45-51.

Newshan, G., & Schuller-Civitella, D. (2003). Large clinical study shows value of therapeutic touch program. Holistic Nursing Practice, 17(4), 189-192.

Nield-Anderson, L., & Ameling, A. (2000). The empowering nature of Reiki as a complementary therapy. Holistic Nursing Practice, 14(3), 21-29.

Nield-Anderson, L., & Ameling, A. (2001). Reiki. A complementary therapy for nursing practice. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing & Mental Health Services, 39(4), 42-49.

Nordio, M., & Romanelli, F. (2008). Efficacy of wrists overnight compression (HT 7 point) on insomniacs: possible role of melatonin? Minerva Medica, 99(6), 539-547.

Norheim, A. J., Liodden, I., & Howley, M. (2010). Implementation of acupuncture and acupressure under surgical procedures in children: a pilot study. Acupuncture in Medicine, 28(2), 71-73.

Noroozinia, H., Mahoori, A., Hasani, E., Gerami-Fahim, M., & Sepehrvand, N. (2013). The effect of acupressure on nausea and vomiting after cesarean section under spinal anesthesia. Acta Medica Iranica, 51(3), 163-167.

Nourbakhsh, M. R., & Fearon, F. J. (2008). The effect of oscillating-energy manual therapy on lateral epicondylitis: a randomized, placebo-control, double-blinded study. Journal of Hand Therapy, 21(1), 4-13; quiz 14.

Nunley, C., Wakim, J., & Guinn, C. (2008). The effects of stimulation of acupressure point p6 on postoperative nausea and vomiting: a review of literature. Journal of PeriAnesthesia Nursing, 23(4), 247-261.

O’Mathuna, D. P. (2000). Evidence-based practice and reviews of therapeutic touch. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 32(3), 279-285.

O’Mathuna, D. P., & Ashford, R. L. (2012). Therapeutic touch for healing acute wounds. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 6, CD002766.

Oleson, T., & Flocco, W. (1993). Randomized controlled study of premenstrual symptoms treated with ear, hand, and foot reflexology. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 82(6), 906-911.

Olson, K., & Hanson, J. (1997). Using Reiki to manage pain: a preliminary report. Cancer Prevention & Control, 1(2), 108-113.

Olson, K., Hanson, J., & Michaud, M. (2003). A phase II trial of Reiki for the management of pain in advanced cancer patients. Journal of Pain & Symptom Management, 26(5), 990-997.

Olson, M., & Sneed, N. (1995). Anxiety and therapeutic touch. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 16(2), 97-108.

Olson, M., Sneed, N., Bonadonna, R., Ratliff, J., & Dias, J. (1992). Therapeutic touch and post-Hurricane Hugo stress. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 10(2), 120-136.

Olson, M., Sneed, N., LaVia, M., Virella, G., Bonadonna, R., & Michel, Y. (1997). Stress-induced immunosuppression and therapeutic touch. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine, 3(2), 68-74.

Ott, M. J., & Mulloney, S. S. (1998). Therapeutic touch. Nurturing the nurse leader. Nursing Management, 29(6), 46-48.

Otter, S., Church, A., Murray, A., Lucas, J., Creasey, N., Woodhouse, J., . . . Cooper, H. (2010). The effects of reflexology in reducing the symptoms of fatigue in people with rheumatoid arthritis: a preliminary study. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 16(12), 1251-1252.

Ozdemir, G., Ovayolu, N., & Ovayolu, O. (2013). The effect of reflexology applied on haemodialysis patients with fatigue, pain and cramps. Int J Nurs Pract, 19(3), 265-273. doi: 10.1111/ijn.12066.

Papantonio, C. (1998). Alternative medicine and wound healing. Ostomy Wound Management, 44(4), 44-46, 48, 50 passim.

Park, J., McCaffrey, R., Dunn, D., & Goodman, R. (2011). Managing osteoarthritis: comparisons of chair yoga, Reiki, and education (pilot study). Holistic Nursing Practice, 25(6), 316-326.

Parsa, C. (1999). Therapeutic touch. Sci Nursing, 16(1), 16-17, 21.
Payne, M. B. (1989). The use of therapeutic touch with rehabilitation clients. Rehabilitation Nursing Journal, 14(2), 69-72.

Peck, S. D. (1998). The efficacy of therapeutic touch for improving functional ability in elders with degenerative arthritis. Nursing Science Quarterly, 11(3), 123-132.

Perkins, P., & Vowler, S. L. (2008). Does acupressure help reduce nausea and vomiting in palliative care patients? Pilot study. Palliative Medicine, 22(2), 193-194.

Peters, R. M. (1999). The effectiveness of therapeutic touch: a meta-analytic review. Nursing Science Quarterly, 12(1), 52-61.
Pierce, B. (2007). The use of biofield therapies in cancer care. Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing, 11(2), 253-258.

Pirie, Z. M., Fox, N. J., & Mathers, N. J. (2012). Delivering shiatsu in a primary care setting: benefits and challenges. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 18(1), 37-42.

Pocotte, S. L., & Salvador, D. (2008). Reiki as a rehabilitative nursing intervention for pain management: a case study. Rehabilitation Nursing Journal, 33(6), 231-232.

Poole, H., Glenn, S., & Murphy, P. (2007). A randomised controlled study of reflexology for the management of chronic low back pain. European Journal of Pain, 11(8), 878-887.

Post-White, J., Kinney, M. E., Savik, K., Gau, J. B., Wilcox, C., & Lerner, I. (2003). Therapeutic massage and healing touch improve symptoms in cancer. Integrative Cancer Therapies, 2(4), 332-344.

Potter, P. (2003). What are the distinctions between Reiki and therapeutic touch? Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing, 7(1), 89-91.

Potter, P. J. (2007). Breast biopsy and distress: feasibility of testing a Reiki intervention. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 25(4), 238-248; discussion 249-251.

Puangsricharern, A., & Mahasukhon, S. (2008). Effectiveness of auricular acupressure in the treatment of nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, 91(11), 1633-1638.

Quattrin, R., Zanini, A., Buchini, S., Turello, D., Annunziata, M. A., Vidotti, C., . . . Brusaferro, S. (2006). Use of reflexology foot massage to reduce anxiety in hospitalized cancer patients in chemotherapy treatment: methodology and outcomes. Journal of Nursing Management, 14(2), 96-105.

Quinn, F., Hughes, C. M., & Baxter, G. D. (2008). Reflexology in the management of low back pain: a pilot randomised controlled trial. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 16(1), 3-8.

Quinn, J. F. (1984). Therapeutic touch as energy exchange: testing the theory. Advances in Nursing Science, 6(2), 42-49.

Quinn, J. F. (1988). Building a body of knowledge: research on therapeutic touch, 1974-1986. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 6(1), 37-45.

Quinn, J. F. (1989). Therapeutic touch as energy exchange: replication and extension. Nursing Science Quarterly, 2(2), 79-87.

Quinn, J. F., & Strelkauskas, A. J. (1993). Psychoimmunologic effects of therapeutic touch on practitioners and recently bereaved recipients: a pilot study. Advances in Nursing Science, 15(4), 13-26.

Rahbar, M. H., Wyatt, G., Sikorskii, A., Victorson, D., & Ardjomand-Hessabi, M. (2011). Coordination and management of multisite complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies: experience from a multisite reflexology intervention trial. Contemporary Clinical Trials, 32(5), 620-629.

Raingruber, B., & Robinson, C. (2007). The effectiveness of Tai Chi, yoga, meditation, and Reiki healing sessions in promoting health and enhancing problem solving abilities of registered nurses. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 28(10), 1141-1155.

Ralston, A. L. (1998). Zero balancing: information on a therapy. Complementary Therapies in Nursing & Midwifery, 4(2), 47-49.

Ramnarine-Singh, S. (1999). The surgical significance of therapeutic touch. AORN Journal, 69(2), 358-369.

Randolph, G. L. (1984). Therapeutic and physical touch: physiological response to stressful stimuli. Nursing Research, 33(1), 33-36.

Raviv, G., Shefi, S., Nizani, D., & Achiron, A. (2009). Effect of craniosacral therapy on lower urinary tract signs and symptoms in multiple sclerosis. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 15(2), 72-75.

Reece, K., Schwartz, G. E., Brooks, A. J., & Nangle, G. (2005). Positive well-being changes associated with giving and receiving Johrei healing. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 11(3), 455-457.

Rein, G. (2004). Bioinformation within the biofield: beyond bioelectromagnetics. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 10(1), 59-68.

Ren, K., Qiu, J., Wang, X., Niu, F., & Jiang, T. (2012). The effect of a sweet potato, footbath, and acupressure intervention in preventing constipation in hospitalized patients with acute coronary syndromes. Gastroenterology Nursing, 35(4), 271-277.

Rerksuppaphol, L. (2012). Efficacy of auricular acupressure combined with transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation for weight reduction in obese women. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, 95 Suppl 12, S32-39.

Reza, H., Kian, N., Pouresmail, Z., Masood, K., Sadat Seyed Bagher, M., & Cheraghi, M. A. (2010). The effect of acupressure on quality of sleep in Iranian elderly nursing home residents. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 16(2), 81-85.

Richeson, N. E., Spross, J. A., Lutz, K., & Peng, C. (2010). Effects of Reiki on anxiety, depression, pain, and physiological factors in community-dwelling older adults. Research in Gerontological Nursing, 3(3), 187-199.

Rindfleisch, J. A. (2010). Biofield therapies: energy medicine and primary care. Primary Care; Clinics in Office Practice, 37(1), 165-179.

Ring, M. E. (2009). Reiki and changes in pattern manifestations. Nursing Science Quarterly, 22(3), 250-258.

Rivera, C. (1999). Reiki therapy-a tool for wellness. Imprint, 46(2), 31-33, 56.

Roberts, K., & Campbell, H. (2011). Using the M technique as therapy for patients at the end of life: two case studies. International Journal of Palliative Nursing, 17(3), 114-118.

Robinson, J., Biley, F. C., & Dolk, H. (2007). Therapeutic touch for anxiety disorders. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews(3), CD006240.

Robinson, N., Lorenc, A., & Liao, X. (2011). The evidence for Shiatsu: a systematic review of Shiatsu and acupressure. BMC Complementary & Alternative Medicine, 11, 88.

Rosa, L. (2011). Reiki therapy: a nursing intervention for critical care. Critical Care Nursing Quarterly, 34(4), 257; author reply 258.

Rosa, L., Rosa, E., Sarner, L., & Barrett, S. (1998). A close look at therapeutic touch. JAMA, 279(13), 1005-1010.

Rosch, P. J. (2009). Bioelectromagnetic and subtle energy medicine: the interface between mind and matter. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1172, 297-311.

Roscoe, J. A., Bushunow, P., Jean-Pierre, P., Heckler, C. E., Purnell, J. Q., Peppone, L. J., . . . Morrow, G. R. (2009). Acupressure bands are effective in reducing radiation therapy-related nausea. Journal of Pain & Symptom Management, 38(3), 381-389.

Roscoe, J. A., Jean-Pierre, P., Morrow, G. R., Hickok, J. T., Issell, B., Wade, J. L., & King, D. K. (2006). Exploratory analysis of the usefulness of acupressure bands when severe chemotherapy-related nausea is expected. Journal Of The Society For Integrative Oncology, 4(1), 16-20.

Roscoe, J. A., Matteson, S. E., Mustian, K. M., Padmanaban, D., & Morrow, G. R. (2005). Treatment of radiotherapy-induced fatigue through a nonpharmacological approach. Integrative Cancer Therapies, 4(1), 8-13.

Roscoe, J. A., O’Neill, M., Jean-Pierre, P., Heckler, C. E., Kaptchuk, T. J., Bushunow, P., . . . Smith, B. (2010). An exploratory study on the effects of an expectancy manipulation on chemotherapy-related nausea. Journal of Pain & Symptom Management, 40(3), 379-390.

Ross, C. S., Hamilton, J., Macrae, G., Docherty, C., Gould, A., & Cornbleet, M. A. (2002). A pilot study to evaluate the effect of reflexology on mood and symptom rating of advanced cancer patients. Palliative Medicine, 16(6), 544-545.

Rowlands, D. (1984). Therapeutic touch: its effects on the depressed elderly. Australian Nurses’ Journal, 13(11), 45-46, 52.

Rubik, B. (1995). Energy medicine and the unifying concept of information. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine, 1(1), 34-39.

Rubik, B. (2002a). Sympathetic Resonance Technology: scientific foundation and summary of biologic and clinical studies. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 8(6), 823-856.

Rubik, B. (2002b). The biofield hypothesis: its biophysical basis and role in medicine. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 8(6), 703-717.

Rueda, J. R., Sola, I., Pascual, A., & Subirana Casacuberta, M. (2011). Non-invasive interventions for improving well-being and quality of life in patients with lung cancer. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews(9), CD004282.

Sadighha, A., & Nurai, N. (2008). Acupressure wristbands versus metoclopramide for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Annals of Saudi Medicine, 28(4), 287-291.

Samarel, N. (1997). Therapeutic touch, dialogue, and women’s experiences in breast cancer surgery. Holistic Nursing Practice, 12(1), 62-70.

Samarel, N., Fawcett, J., Davis, M. M., & Ryan, F. M. (1998). Effects of dialogue and therapeutic touch on preoperative and postoperative experiences of breast cancer surgery: an exploratory study. Oncology Nursing Forum, 25(8), 1369-1376.

Samuel, C. A., & Ebenezer, I. S. (2013). Exploratory study on the efficacy of reflexology for pain threshold and tolerance using an ice-pain experiment and sham TENS control. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 19(2), 57-62.

Sawyer, J. (1998). The first Reiki practitioner in our OR. AORN Journal, 67(3), 674-677.

Sayre-Adams, J. (1992). Complementary therapy, therapeutic touch-research and reality. Nursing Standard, 6(50), 52-54.

Sayre-Adams, J. (1994). Therapeutic touch in health visiting practice. Health Visitor, 67(9), 304-305.

Scales, B. (2001). CAMPing in the PACU: using complementary and alternative medical practices in the PACU. Journal of PeriAnesthesia Nursing, 16(5), 325-334.

Schiller, R. (2003). Reiki: a starting point for integrative medicine. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine, 9(2), 20-21.

Schmehr, R. (2003). Enhancing the treatment of HIV/AIDS with Reiki training and treatment. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine, 9(2), 120, 118.

Schulte, M. A. (1991). Self-care activating support: therapeutic touch and chronic skin disease. Dermatology Nursing, 3(5), 335-339.

Schwartz, G. E., Swanick, S., Sibert, W., Lewis, D. A., Lewis, S. E., Nelson, L., . . . Bell, I. R. (2004). Biofield detection: role of bioenergy awareness training and individual differences in absorption. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 10(1), 167-169.

Searls, K., & Fawcett, J. (2011). Effect of Jin Shin Jyutsu energy medicine treatments on women diagnosed with breast cancer. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 29(4), 270-278.

Settersten, L. (2011). What is esoteric healing? Journal of Holistic Nursing, 29(2), 132-139.

Shariati, A., Jahani, S., Hooshmand, M., & Khalili, N. (2012). The effect of acupressure on sleep quality in hemodialysis patients. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 20(6), 417-423.

Sharp, D. M., Walker, M. B., Chaturvedi, A., Upadhyay, S., Hamid, A., Walker, A. A., . . . Walker, L. G. (2010). A randomised, controlled trial of the psychological effects of reflexology in early breast cancer. European Journal of Cancer, 46(2), 312-322.

Shen, P. (2004). Two hundred cases of insomnia treated by otopoint pressure plus acupuncture. Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 24(3), 168-169.

Shiao, S. Y., & Dibble, S. L. (2006). Metaanalyses of acustimulation effects on nausea and vomiting across different patient populations: a brief overview of existing evidence. Explore: The Journal of Science & Healing, 2(3), 200-201.

Shiao, S. Y., & Dune, L. S. (2006). Metaanalyses of acustimulations: effects on nausea and vomiting in postoperative adult patients. Explore: The Journal of Science & Healing, 2(3), 202-215.

Shiflett, S. C., Nayak, S., Bid, C., Miles, P., & Agostinelli, S. (2002). Effect of Reiki treatments on functional recovery in patients in poststroke rehabilitation: a pilot study. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 8(6), 755-763.

Shin, B. C., & Lee, M. S. (2007). Effects of aromatherapy acupressure on hemiplegic shoulder pain and motor power in stroke patients: a pilot study. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 13(2), 247-251.

Shin, Y. H., Kim, T. I., Shin, M. S., & Juon, H. S. (2004). Effect of acupressure on nausea and vomiting during chemotherapy cycle for Korean postoperative stomach cancer patients. Cancer Nursing, 27(4), 267-274.

Shore, A. G. (2004). Long-term effects of energetic healing on symptoms of psychological depression and self-perceived stress.[Erratum appears in Altern Ther Health Med. 2004 Jul-Aug;10(4):14]. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine, 10(3), 42-48.

Siev-Ner, I., Gamus, D., Lerner-Geva, L., & Achiron, A. (2003). Reflexology treatment relieves symptoms of multiple sclerosis: a randomized controlled study. Multiple Sclerosis, 9(4), 356-361.

Sikorskii, A., Wyatt, G., Victorson, D., Faulkner, G., & Rahbar, M. H. (2009). Methodological issues in trials of complementary and alternative medicine interventions. Nursing Research, 58(6), 444-451.

Simington, J. A., & Laing, G. P. (1993). Effects of therapeutic touch on anxiety in the institutionalized elderly. Clinical Nursing Research, 2(4), 438-450.

Sinha, A., Paech, M. J., Thew, M. E., Rhodes, M., Luscombe, K., & Nathan, E. (2011). A randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study of acupressure wristbands for the prevention of nausea and vomiting during labour and delivery. International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia, 20(2), 110-117.

Smith, C. A., Collins, C. T., Crowther, C. A., & Levett, K. M. (2011). Acupuncture or acupressure for pain management in labour. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews(7), CD009232.

Smith, C. A., Levett, K. M., Collins, C. T., & Jones, L. (2012). Massage, reflexology and other manual methods for pain management in labour. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2, CD009290.

Smith, D. W., Arnstein, P., Rosa, K. C., & Wells-Federman, C. (2002). Effects of integrating therapeutic touch into a cognitive behavioral pain treatment program. Report of a pilot clinical trial. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 20(4), 367-387.

Smith, D. W., & Broida, J. P. (2007). Pandimensional field pattern changes in healers and healees: experiencing therapeutic touch. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 25(4), 217-225; discussion 226-217.

Smith, M. C., Reeder, F., Daniel, L., Baramee, J., & Hagman, J. (2003). Outcomes of touch therapies during bone marrow transplant. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine, 9(1), 40-49.

Smyth, P. E. (2001). Therapeutic touch for a patient after a Whipple procedure. Critical Care Nursing Clinics of North America, 13(3), 357-363.

Sneed, N. V., Olson, M., & Bonadonna, R. (1997). The experience of therapeutic touch for novice recipients. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 15(3), 243-253.

Sneed, N. V., Olson, M., Bubolz, B., & Finch, N. (2001). Influences of a relaxation intervention on perceived stress and power spectral analysis of heart rate variability. Progress in Cardiovascular Nursing, 16(2), 57-64, 79.

Snyder, J. R. (1997). Therapeutic touch and the terminally ill: healing power through the hands. American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Medicine, 14(2), 83-87.

Snyder, M., Egan, E. C., & Burns, K. R. (1995). Interventions for decreasing agitation behaviors in persons with dementia. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 21(7), 34-40.

So, P. S., Jiang, Y., & Qin, Y. (2008). Touch therapies for pain relief in adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews(4), CD006535.

Sood, A., Barton, D. L., Bauer, B. A., & Loprinzi, C. L. (2007). A critical review of complementary therapies for cancer-related fatigue. Integrative Cancer Therapies, 6(1), 8-13.

Spence, J. E., & Olson, M. A. (1997). Quantitative research on therapeutic touch. An integrative review of the literature 1985-1995. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 11(3), 183-190.

Stahlman, J. (1995). Therapeutic touch: fuzzy metaphysics. American Journal of Nursing, 95(7), 17; author reply 18.

Starn, J. R. (1998a). Energy healing with women and children. JOGNN – Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, & Neonatal Nursing, 27(5), 576-584.

Starn, J. R. (1998b). The path to becoming an energy healer. Nurse Practitioner Forum, 9(4), 209-216.

Staud, R. (2011). Effectiveness of CAM therapy: understanding the evidence. Rheumatic Diseases Clinics of North America, 37(1), 9-17.

Stephen, J. E., Mackenzie, G., Sample, S., & Macdonald, J. (2007). Twenty years of therapeutic touch in a Canadian cancer agency: lessons learned from a case study of integrative oncology practice. Supportive Care in Cancer, 15(8), 993-998.

Stephenson, N., Dalton, J. A., & Carlson, J. (2003). The effect of foot reflexology on pain in patients with
metastatic cancer. Applied Nursing Research, 16(4), 284-286.

Stephenson, N. L., & Dalton, J. A. (2003). Using reflexology for pain management. A review. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 21(2), 179-191.

Stephenson, N. L., Swanson, M., Dalton, J., Keefe, F. J., & Engelke, M. (2007). Partner-delivered reflexology: effects on cancer pain and anxiety. Oncology Nursing Forum, 34(1), 127-132.

Stephenson, N. L., Weinrich, S. P., & Tavakoli, A. S. (2000). The effects of foot reflexology on anxiety and pain in patients with breast and lung cancer. Oncology Nursing Forum, 27(1), 67-72.

Straneva, J. A. (2000). Therapeutic touch coming of age. Holistic Nursing Practice, 14(3), 1-13.

Streitberger, K., & Kranke, P. (2011). Evidence for the efficacy of acupressure for preventing post-operative nausea and vomiting: an ongoing debate. European Journal of Anaesthesiology, 28(6), 396-398.

Strickland, M. L., & Boylan, H. M. (2010). Using enzyme folding to explore the mechanism of therapeutic touch: a feasibility study. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 16(7), 715-721.

Suen, L. K., Wong, T. K., Chung, J. W., & Yip, V. Y. (2007). Auriculotherapy on low back pain in the elderly. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 13(1), 63-69.

Sugiura, T., Horiguchi, H., Sugahara, K., Takeda, C., Samejima, M., Fujii, A., & Okita, Y. (2007). Heart rate and electroencephalogram changes caused by finger acupressure on planta pedis. Journal of Physiological Anthropology, 26(2), 257-259.

Suh, E. E. (2012). The effects of P6 acupressure and nurse-provided counseling on chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in patients with breast cancer. Oncology Nursing Forum, 39(1), E1-9.

Sun, J. L., Sung, M. S., Huang, M. Y., Cheng, G. C., & Lin, C. C. (2010). Effectiveness of acupressure for residents of long-term care facilities with insomnia: a randomized controlled trial. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 47(7), 798-805.

Sutherland, E. G., Ritenbaugh, C., Kiley, S. J., Vuckovic, N., & Elder, C. (2009). An HMO-based prospective pilot study of energy medicine for chronic headaches: whole-person outcomes point to the need for new instrumentation. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 15(8), 819-826.

Suzuki, K., Uchida, S., Kimura, T., & Katamura, H. (2012). A large cross-sectional, descriptive study of self-reports after biofield therapy in Japan: demography, symptomology, and circumstances of treatment administration. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine, 18(4), 38-50.

Tang, R., Tegeler, C., Larrimore, D., Cowgill, S., & Kemper, K. J. (2010). Improving the well-being of nursing leaders through healing touch training. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 16(8), 837-841.

Tarantino, B., Earley, M., Audia, D., D’Adamo, C., & Berman, B. (2013). Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of a pilot integrative coping and resiliency program for healthcare professionals. Explore: The Journal of Science & Healing, 9(1), 44-47.

Taspinar, A., & Sirin, A. (2010). Effect of acupressure on chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in gynecologic cancer patients in Turkey. European Journal of Oncology Nursing, 14(1), 49-54.

Taylor, B., & Lo, R. (2001). The effects of Healing Touch on the coping ability, self esteem and general health of undergraduate nursing students.[Erratum appears in Complement Ther Nurs Midwifery 2001 May;7(2):122]. Complementary Therapies in Nursing & Midwifery, 7(1), 34-42.

Tian, X., & Krishnan, S. (2006). Efficacy of auricular acupressure as an adjuvant therapy in substance abuse treatment: a pilot study. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine, 12(1), 66-69.

Tiran, D., & Chummun, H. (2005). The physiological basis of reflexology and its use as a potential diagnostic tool. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 11(1), 58-64.

Tokumaru, O., & Chen, J. D. (2005). Effects of acupressure on gastric myoelectrical activity in healthy humans. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, 40(3), 319-325.

Toms, R. (2011). Reiki therapy: a nursing intervention for critical care. Critical Care Nursing Quarterly, 34(3), 213-217.

Tovey, P. (2002). A single-blind trial of reflexology for irritable bowel syndrome. British Journal of General Practice, 52(474), 19-23.

Townsend, J. S. (2013). Temari Reiki: a new hands-off approach to traditional Reiki. Int J Nurs Pract, 19 Suppl 2, 34-38. doi: 10.1111/ijn.12042.

Tsang, K. L., Carlson, L. E., & Olson, K. (2007). Pilot crossover trial of Reiki versus rest for treating cancer-related fatigue. Integrative Cancer Therapies, 6(1), 25-35.

Tsay, S. L., Cho, Y. C., & Chen, M. L. (2004). Acupressure and Transcutaneous Electrical Acupoint Stimulation in improving fatigue, sleep quality and depression in hemodialysis patients. American Journal of Chinese Medicine, 32(3), 407-416.

Tsay, S. L., Wang, J. C., Lin, K. C., & Chung, U. L. (2005). Effects of acupressure therapy for patients having prolonged mechanical ventilation support. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 52(2), 142-150.

Turgut, S., Ozalp, G., Dikmen, S., Savli, S., Tuncel, G., & Kadiogullari, N. (2007). Acupressure for postoperative nausea and vomiting in gynaecological patients receiving patient-controlled analgesia. European Journal of Anaesthesiology, 24(1), 87-91.

Turner, J. G., Clark, A. J., Gauthier, D. K., & Williams, M. (1998). The effect of therapeutic touch on pain and anxiety in burn patients. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 28(1), 10-20.

Turney, J. (2002). Tackling birth trauma with cranio-sacral therapy. Practising Midwife, 5(3), 17-19.

Ugarriza, D. N. (2002). Intentionality: applications within selected theories of nursing. Holistic Nursing Practice, 16(4), 41-50.

Umbreit, A. W. (2000). Healing touch: applications in the acute care setting. AACN Clinical Issues, 11(1), 105-119.

Vachiramon, A., & Wang, W. C. (2005). Acupuncture and acupressure techniques for reducing orthodontic post-adjustment pain. Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice [Electronic Resource], 6(1), 163-167.

Valiee, S., Bassampour, S. S., Nasrabadi, A. N., Pouresmaeil, Z., & Mehran, A. (2012). Effect of acupressure on preoperative anxiety: a clinical trial. Journal of PeriAnesthesia Nursing, 27(4), 259-266.

Van Aken, R., & Taylor, B. (2010). Emerging from depression: the experiential process of Healing Touch explored through grounded theory and case study. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 16(3), 132-137.

Vandergrift, A. (2013). Use of complementary therapies in hospice and palliative care. Omega – Journal of Death & Dying, 67(1-2), 227-232.

vanderVaart, S., Gijsen, V. M., de Wildt, S. N., & Koren, G. (2009). A systematic review of the therapeutic effects of Reiki. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 15(11), 1157-1169.

Vaughan, S. (1995). The gentle touch. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 4(6), 359-368.

Ventegodt, S., Merrick, J., Andersen, N. J., & Bendix, T. (2004). A combination of gestalt therapy, Rosen Body Work, and Cranio Sacral therapy did not help in chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WAD)-results of a randomized clinical trial. Thescientificworldjournal, 4, 1055-1068.

Ventegodt, S., Morad, M., & Merrick, J. (2004). Clinical holistic medicine: classic art of healing or the therapeutic touch. Thescientificworldjournal, 4, 134-147.

Viggo Hansen, N., Jorgensen, T., & Ortenblad, L. (2006). Massage and touch for dementia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews(4), CD004989.

Villaire, M. (1999). Healing touch therapy makes a difference in surgery unit. Critical Care Nurse, 19(1), 104.

Vitale, A. (2006). The use of selected energy touch modalities as supportive nursing interventions: are we there yet? Holistic Nursing Practice, 20(4), 191-196.

Vitale, A. (2007). An integrative review of Reiki touch therapy research. Holistic Nursing Practice, 21(4), 167-179; quiz 180-161.

Vitale, A. (2009). Nurses’ lived experience of Reiki for self-care. Holistic Nursing Practice, 23(3), 129-141, 142-125; quiz 146-127.

Vitale, A. T., & O’Connor, P. C. (2006). The effect of Reiki on pain and anxiety in women with abdominal hysterectomies: a quasi-experimental pilot study. Holistic Nursing Practice, 20(6), 263-272; quiz

Wang, K. L., & Hermann, C. (2006). Pilot study to test the effectiveness of Healing Touch on agitation in people with dementia. Geriatric Nursing, 27(1), 34-40.

Wang, M. C., Hsu, M. C., Chien, L. W., Kao, C. H., & Liu, C. F. (2009). Effects of auricular acupressure on menstrual symptoms and nitric oxide for women with primary dysmenorrhea. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 15(3), 235-242.

Wang, M. Y., Tsai, P. S., Lee, P. H., Chang, W. Y., & Yang, C. M. (2008). The efficacy of reflexology: systematic review. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 62(5), 512-520.

Wang, S. M., Escalera, S., Lin, E. C., Maranets, I., & Kain, Z. N. (2008). Extra-1 acupressure for children undergoing anesthesia. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 107(3), 811-816.

Wang, S. M., Gaal, D., Maranets, I., Caldwell-Andrews, A., & Kain, Z. N. (2005). Acupressure and preoperative parental anxiety: a pilot study. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 101(3), 666-669, table of contents.

Wang, Y. Z., Chen, H. H., Yeh, M. L., & Lin, S. D. (2010). Auricular acupressure combined with multimedia instruction or alone for quitting smoking in young adults: A quasi-experimental study. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 47(9), 1089-1095.

Warber, S. L., Gordon, A., Gillespie, B. W., Olson, M., & Assefi, N. (2003). Standards for conducting clinical biofield energy healing research. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine, 9(3 Suppl), A54-64.

Wardell, D. W. (2007). Using healing touch for end of life care. Beginnings, 27(4), 28-29.

Wardell, D. W., Decker, S. A., & Engebretson, J. C. (2012). Healing touch for older adults with persistent pain. Holistic Nursing Practice, 26(4), 194-202.

Wardell, D. W., & Engebretson, J. (2001). Biological correlates of Reiki Touch(sm) healing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 33(4), 439-445.

Wardell, D. W., & Mentgen, J. (1999). Healing touch-an energy-based approach to healing. Imprint, 46(2), 34-35, 51.

Wardell, D. W., Rintala, D., & Tan, G. (2008). Study descriptions of healing touch with veterans experiencing chronic neuropathic pain from spinal cord injury. Explore: The Journal of Science & Healing, 4(3), 187-195.

Wardell, D. W., Rintala, D. H., Duan, Z., & Tan, G. (2006). A pilot study of healing touch and progressive relaxation for chronic neuropathic pain in persons with spinal cord injury. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 24(4), 231-240; discussion 241-234.

Wardell, D. W., & Weymouth, K. F. (2004). Review of studies of healing touch. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 36(2), 147-154.

Wardha, H. (2004). Pranic healing. Australian Journal of Holistic Nursing, 11(2), 35-40.

Wendler, M. C. (2002). Tellington touch before venipuncture: an exploratory descriptive study. Holistic Nursing Practice, 16(4), 51-64.

Weston, M., & Grabowska, C. (2013). Complementary therapy for induction of labour. Practising Midwife, 16(8), S16-18.

Wetzel, W. S. (1993). Healing touch as a nursing intervention: wound infection following cesarean birth-an anecdotal case study. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 11(3), 277-285.

Weze, C., Leathard, H. L., Grange, J., Tiplady, P., & Stevens, G. (2004). Evaluation of healing by gentle touch in 35 clients with cancer. European Journal of Oncology Nursing, 8(1), 40-49.

Whelan, K. M., & Wishnia, G. S. (2003). Reiki therapy: the benefits to a nurse/Reiki practitioner. Holistic Nursing Practice, 17(4), 209-217.

White, A. R., Moody, R. C., & Campbell, J. L. (2007). Acupressure for smoking cessation-a pilot study. BMC Complementary & Alternative Medicine, 7, 8.

White, A. R., Rampes, H., & Campbell, J. L. (2006). Acupuncture and related interventions for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews(1), CD000009.

White, P. F., Zhao, M., Tang, J., Wender, R. H., Yumul, R., Sloninsky, A. V., . . . Cunneen, S. (2012). Use of a disposable acupressure device as part of a multimodal antiemetic strategy for reducing postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 115(1), 31-37.

Whitley, J. A., & Rich, B. L. (2008). A double-blind randomized controlled pilot trial examining the safety and efficacy of therapeutic touch in premature infants. Advances in Neonatal Care, 8(6), 315-333.

Wilkinson, D. S., Knox, P. L., Chatman, J. E., Johnson, T. L., Barbour, N., Myles, Y., & Reel, A. (2002). The clinical effectiveness of healing touch. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 8(1), 33-47.

Wilkinson, I. S., Prigmore, S., & Rayner, C. F. (2006). A randomised-controlled trail examining the effects of reflexology of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 12(2), 141-147.

Wilkinson, S., Lockhart, K., Gambles, M., & Storey, L. (2008). Reflexology for symptom relief in patients with cancer. Cancer Nursing, 31(5), 354-360; quiz 361-352.

Williams, A. M., Davies, A., & Griffiths, G. (2009). Facilitating comfort for hospitalized patients using non-pharmacological measures: preliminary development of clinical practice guidelines. International Journal of Nursing Practice, 15(3), 145-155.

Williamson, J., White, A., Hart, A., & Ernst, E. (2002). Randomised controlled trial of reflexology for menopausal symptoms. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 109(9), 1050-1055.

Winstead-Fry, P., & Kijek, J. (1999). An integrative review and meta-analysis of therapeutic touch research. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine, 5(6), 58-67.

Wirth, D. P. (1995). Complementary healing intervention and dermal wound reepithelialization: an overview. International Journal of Psychosomatics, 42(1-4), 48-53.

Wirth, D. P., & Barrett, M. J. (1994). Complementary healing therapies. International Journal of Psychosomatics, 41(1-4), 61-67.

Wirth, D. P., & Cram, J. R. (1993). Multi-site electromyographic analysis of non-contact therapeutic touch. International Journal of Psychosomatics, 40(1-4), 47-55.

Wirth, D. P., & Cram, J. R. (1994). The psychophysiology of nontraditional prayer. International Journal of
Psychosomatics, 41(1-4), 68-75.

Wirth, D. P., Cram, J. R., & Chang, R. J. (1997). Multisite electromyographic analysis of therapeutic touch and qigong therapy. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 3(2), 109-118.

Wirth, D. P., Richardson, J. T., & Eidelman, W. S. (1996). Wound healing and complementary therapies: a review. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 2(4), 493-502.

Witzel, T., Napadow, V., Kettner, N. W., Vangel, M. G., Hamalainen, M. S., & Dhond, R. P. (2011). Differences in cortical response to acupressure and electroacupuncture stimuli. BMC Neuroscience, 12, 73.

Wollaston, D. E., Xu, X., Tokumaru, O., Chen, J. D., & McNearney, T. A. (2005). Patients with systemic sclerosis have unique and persistent alterations in gastric myoelectrical activity with acupressure to Neiguan point PC6. Journal of Rheumatology, 32(3), 494-501.

Wong, C. L., Lai, K. Y., & Tse, H. M. (2010). Effects of SP6 acupressure on pain and menstrual distress in young women with dysmenorrhea. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 16(2), 64-69.

Wong, J., Ghiasuddin, A., Kimata, C., Patelesio, B., & Siu, A. (2013). The impact of healing touch on pediatric oncology patients. Integrative Cancer Therapies, 12(1), 25-30.

Woods, D. L., Beck, C., & Sinha, K. (2009). The effect of therapeutic touch on behavioral symptoms and cortisol in persons with dementia. Forschende Komplementarmedizin (2006), 16(3), 181-189.

Woods, D. L., Craven, R. F., & Whitney, J. (2005). The effect of therapeutic touch on behavioral symptoms of persons with dementia. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine, 11(1), 66-74.

Woods, D. L., & Dimond, M. (2002). The effect of therapeutic touch on agitated behavior and cortisol in persons with Alzheimer’s disease. Biological Research for Nursing, 4(2), 104-114.

Woodward, S., Norton, C., & Barriball, K. L. (2010). A pilot study of the effectiveness of reflexology in treating idiopathic constipation in women. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 16(1), 41-46.

Wright, S., Courtney, U., Donnelly, C., Kenny, T., & Lavin, C. (2002). Clients’ perceptions of the benefits of reflexology on their quality of life. Complementary Therapies in Nursing & Midwifery, 8(2), 69-76.

Wright, S. M. (1987). The use of therapeutic touch in the management of pain. Nursing Clinics of North America, 22(3), 705-714.

Wu, H. S., Lin, L. C., Wu, S. C., & Lin, J. G. (2007). The psychologic consequences of chronic dyspnea in chronic pulmonary obstruction disease: the effects of acupressure on depression. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 13(2), 253-261.

Wu, H. S., Wu, S. C., Lin, J. G., & Lin, L. C. (2004). Effectiveness of acupressure in improving dyspnoea in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 45(3), 252-259.

Wu, X., Bai, G., Wen, J., & Yang, J. (2005). Evaluation on the therapeutic effects of digital acupoint pressure for obstetric spastic cerebral palsy. Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 25(4), 247-251.

Wyatt, G., Sikorskii, A., Rahbar, M. H., Victorson, D., & You, M. (2012). Health-related quality-of-life outcomes: a reflexology trial with patients with advanced-stage breast cancer. Oncology Nursing Forum, 39(6), 568-577.

Wyatt, G., Sikorskii, A., Siddiqi, A., & Given, C. W. (2007). Feasibility of a reflexology and guided imagery intervention during chemotherapy: results of a quasi-experimental study. Oncology Nursing Forum, 34(3), 635-642.

Wyatt, G., Sikorskii, A., Tamkus, D., & You, M. (2013). Quality of life among advanced breast cancer patients with and without distant metastasis. European Journal of Cancer Care, 22(2), 272-280.

Wytias, C. A. (1994). Therapeutic touch in primary care. Nurse Practitioner Forum, 5(2), 91-96.

Xue, C. C., Zhang, C. S., Yang, A. W., Zhang, A. L., Li, Y., Xia, J., . . . Thien, F. (2011). Semi-self-administered ear acupressure for persistent allergic rhinitis: a randomised sham-controlled trial. Annals of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology, 106(2), 168-170.

Yamashita, M., Jensen, E., & Tall, F. (1998). Therapeutic touch: applying Newman’s theoretic approach. Nursing Science Quarterly, 11(2), 49-50.

Yang, L. Y., Yates, P., Chin, C. C., & Kao, T. K. (2010). Effect of acupressure on thirst in hemodialysis patients. Kidney & Blood Pressure Research, 33(4), 260-265.

Yang, M. H., Wu, S. C., Lin, J. G., & Lin, L. C. (2007). The efficacy of acupressure for decreasing agitated behaviour in dementia: a pilot study. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 16(2), 308-315.

Yates, S. (2006). Shiatsu-an ancient art. Practising Midwife, 9(3), 30.

Yeh, C. C., Ko, S. C., Huh, B. K., Kuo, C. P., Wu, C. T., Cherng, C. H., & Wong, C. S. (2008). Shoulder tip pain after laparoscopic surgery analgesia by collateral meridian acupressure (shiatsu) therapy: a report of 2 cases. Journal of Manipulative & Physiological Therapeutics, 31(6), 484-488.

Yeh, C. C., Wu, C. T., Huh, B. K., Lee, S. M., & Wong, C. S. (2009). Collateral meridian acupressure therapy effectively relieves postregional anesthesia/analgesia backache. Southern Medical Journal, 102(11), 1179-1182.

Yeh, C. H., & Yeh, S. C. (2008). Effects of ear points’ pressing on parameters related to obesity in non-obese healthy and obese volunteers. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 14(3), 309-314.

Yeh, M. L., Chen, C. H., Chen, H. H., & Lin, K. C. (2008). An intervention of acupressure and interactive multimedia to improve visual health among Taiwanese schoolchildren. Public Health Nursing, 25(1), 10-17.

Yeh, M. L., Chen, H. H., & Chung, Y. C. (2012). One year study on the integrative intervention of acupressure and interactive multimedia for visual health in school children. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 20(6), 385-392.

Yeh, M. L., Hung, Y. L., Chen, H. H., & Wang, Y. J. (2013). Auricular acupressure for pain relief in adolescents with dysmenorrhea: a placebo-controlled study. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 19(4), 313-318.

Yeh, M. L., Tsou, M. Y., Lee, B. Y., Chen, H. H., & Chung, Y. C. (2010). Effects of auricular acupressure on pain reduction in patient-controlled analgesia after lumbar spine surgery.[Erratum appears in Acta Anaesthesiol Taiwan. 2010 Sep;48(3):160]. Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica: Official Journal of the Taiwan Society of Anesthesiologists, 48(2), 80-86.

Yeung, W. F., Chung, K. F., Poon, M. M., Ho, F. Y., Zhang, S. P., Zhang, Z. J., . . . Wong, V. T. (2012). Acupressure, reflexology, and auricular acupressure for insomnia: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Sleep Medicine, 13(8), 971-984.

Yip, Y. B., & Tse, S. H. (2004). The effectiveness of relaxation acupoint stimulation and acupressure with aromatic lavender essential oil for non-specific low back pain in Hong Kong: a randomised controlled trial. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 12(1), 28-37.

Yip, Y. B., & Tse, S. H. (2006). An experimental study on the effectiveness of acupressure with aromatic lavender essential oil for sub-acute, non-specific neck pain in Hong Kong. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 12(1), 18-26.

Yue, S., Jiang, X., & Wong, T. (2013). Effects of a nurse-led acupressure programme for stroke patients in China. J Clin Nurs, 22(7-8), 1182-1188. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2702.2012.04127.x

Zhang, C. S., Yang, A. W., Zhang, A. L., Fu, W. B., Thien, F. U., Lewith, G., & Xue, C. C. (2010). Ear-acupressure for allergic rhinitis: a systematic review. Clinical Otolaryngology, 35(1), 6-12.

Zhang, W., Takahashi, S., Miki, T., Fujieda, H., & Ishida, T. (2010). A pilot study exploring the effects of reflexology on cold intolerance. Jams Journal of Acupuncture & Meridian Studies, 3(1), 43-48.

Zhou, J., Qu, F., Sang, X., Burrows, E., & Nan, R. (2008). Auricular acupressure may improve absorption of flavanones in the extracts from Citrus aurantium L. in the human body. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 14(4), 423-425.

Zick, S. M., Wyatt, G. K., Murphy, S. L., Arnedt, J. T., Sen, A., & Harris, R. E. (2012). Acupressure for persistent cancer-related fatigue in breast cancer survivors (AcuCrft): a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. BMC Complementary & Alternative Medicine, 12, 132.

Zolfaghari, M., Eybpoosh, S., & Hazrati, M. (2012). Effects of therapeutic touch on anxiety, vital signs, and cardiac dysrhythmia in a sample of Iranian women undergoing cardiac catheterization: a quasi-experimental study. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 30(4), 225-234.

The following information is a brief rationale on the reasons for the exclusion of these modalities from our literature search. Keep in mind, we are comparing the core aspects of the practices of each modality. Our comparison is admittedly imperfect, and not intended to be a source of debate.
EFT – The core of EFT and its variants are a type of Energy Psychology, which is significantly different than EM, and EEM. The primary mechanism for EFT is the use of tapping meridian points. There are no exercises to activate and balance subtle energy systems, or work with other subtle energy systems. There is no practitioner based hands on healing involved. In addition, an up-to-date research bibliography can be found at
Acupuncture – this modality works with the Meridians, a subtle energy system, and in some instances may utilize other energy systems that are engaged with Eden Energy Medicine (EEM; Radiant Circuits or the 5 Rhythms.) Yet the primary mechanism for stimulating these energies is the use of acupuncture needles. Typically these are placed in specified locations on the body, and then the practitioner leaves the client alone to let the needles stimulate their energies. This is a fundamentally different than the methodologies used in an EEM session, or when EEM is used for self-care, therefore we did not consider it significantly close in nature to EEM.
Traditional Massage – this modality uses techniques that are also found in EEM, although the emphasis in massage is to work with soft tissues, whereas in EEM it is to work with energy systems. Less frequently, or absent altogether, are there exercises or techniques used to directly stimulate subtle energies. More importantly, the typical rationale for the benefits of massage are explained via muscular skeletal alignment, or soft tissue release, and are not explained via the balancing of subtle energies.
Yoga – yoga is an ancient practice which has many different branches and expressions. In the US, emphasis is on the postural and breathing practices, which fall into the branch referred to as Hatha Yoga. There is some similarity between yoga postures and EEM Daily Energy Exercises or other EEM exercises. In fact some are very similar. However the execution of those practices are quite different than the use of EEM exercises of a private EEM session. Hatha Yoga is primarily a group based, teacher led experience, and there are not typically hands on based healing techniques as a core component of the major branches of Hatha yoga.

Dawson Church, PhD,  is an award-winning author whose best-selling book, The Genie in Your Genes, ( has been hailed by reviewers as a breakthrough in our understanding of the


Acupressure Boosts Effects of Psychotherapy in New Research acupressure + Read More

Please make a donation to our work. Because we have so many volunteers, we are able to provide $12 of services for every $1 you donate.