Energy Medicine Research References
This bibliography has been prepared by the Energy Medicine Research Network (EMRN) and is hosted by the National Institute for Integrative Healthcare (NIIH). A literature search was undertaken by Sandra Shipp, EEM-AP and Anne Rosebrook, MLP, and lists studies that have met the following criteria:
- They assess the use of hands-on healing or interventions within the body’s energy field;
- They use energetic exercises or techniques to balance the body’s energy systems;
- The explanation they use for the effects of treatment is based on changes to the body’s energy field.
The Energy Medicine Research Network describes the search criteria as follows:
In order to complete the literature search, Ovid/Medline and PubMed medical databases were searched using the following keywords: acupressure, “Barbara Brennan”, biofield, cranio-sacral therapy, “body talk,” “energy medicine,” “energy healing,” “healing touch,” johrei, “polarity therapy,” “pranic healing,” “quantum touch,” reflexology, reiki, shiatsu, “touch for health,” “touch therapy,” and the MESH controlled vocabulary term “therapeutic touch.” Search results were limited to English language and human subject research. The results were visually scanned to eliminate general overviews of a modality, letters to the Editor, interviews, or other non-research publications. A broad range of reports was still included, ranging from more case studies to sophisticated clinical trials to systematic reviews of previously published studies.
This articles selected according to the criteria outlined above are presented as an APA-formatted reference list. They have not been reviewed to assess a positive, negative, or neutral outcome of the research, research methodology, or quality of research. It is merely a list of articles meeting the stated criteria.
The literature search identified 600+ studies encompassing the following Energy Medicine modalities:
- Auricular Acupressure
- Brennan Healing Science
- Biofield Healing
- Body Talk
- Craniosacral therapy
- Healing Touch
- Polarity Therapy
- Pranic Healing
- Quantum Touch
- Therapeutic Touch
- Touch for Health
- Touch Therapy
Acupuncture, Distant Healing, EFT (Emotional Freedom Techniques), Energy Psychology, Massage, Prayer and Yoga are not included in this bibliography. The rationale for this exclusion can be found in an Appendix below the list of studies. Below are links to bibliographies for these modalities where available. The explanation of the process used to conduct the literature search, and full inclusion and exclusion criteria, is available in a PDF of the original list.
The original search was undertaken in May 2014 and the list is updated by EMRN volunteers periodically. If you’re aware of a study you feel should be included in the list, please read the full article first, and if you still feel the article should be included, please email firstname.lastname@example.org, and it will be considered for inclusion during the next update.
Additional reference lists on other subsets of Energy Medicine are available at the links below:
- Distant Healing
- EFT (Emotional Freedom Techniques)
- Energy Psychology
Many of the above bibliographies are not current; we would also appreciate links to up-to-date sources if you’re aware of them. Thanks for your support of energy medicine!
Energy Medicine Research Bibliography
Agarwal, A., Dhiraaj, S., Tandon, M., Singh, P. K., Singh, U., & Pawar, S. (2005). Evaluation of capsaicin ointment at the Korean hand acupressure point K-D2 for prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anaesthesia, 60(12), 1185-1188.
Agarwal, A., Ranjan, R., Dhiraaj, S., Lakra, A., Kumar, M., & Singh, U. (2005). Acupressure for prevention of pre-operative anxiety: a prospective, randomised, placebo controlled study. Anaesthesia, 60(10), 978-981.
Ai, A. L., Peterson, C., Gillespie, B., Bolling, S. F., Jessup, M. G., Behling, B. A., & Pierce, F. (2001). Designing clinical trials on energy healing: ancient art encounters medical science. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine, 7(4), 83-90.
Alessandrini, M., Napolitano, B., Micarelli, A., de Padova, A., & Bruno, E. (2012). P6 acupressure effectiveness on acute vertiginous patients: a double blind randomized study. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 18(12), 1121-1126.
Alkaissi, A., Ledin, T., Odkvist, L. M., & Kalman, S. (2005). P6 acupressure increases tolerance to nauseogenic motion stimulation in women at high risk for PONV. Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, 52(7), 703-709.
Allais, G., Rolando, S., Castagnoli Gabellari, I., Burzio, C., Airola, G., Borgogno, P., . . . Benedetto, C. (2012). Acupressure in the control of migraine-associated nausea. Neurological Sciences, 33 Suppl 1, S207-210.
Anonymous. (2005). Healing touch: hands-on help for the heart? Touch therapies are reaching growing numbers of patients. Harvard Heart Letter, 16(2), 3.
Arai, Y. C., Ushida, T., Osuga, T., Matsubara, T., Oshima, K., Kawaguchi, K., . . . Watakabe, K. (2008). The effect of acupressure at the extra 1 point on subjective and autonomic responses to needle insertion. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 107(2), 661-664.
Baldwin, A. L., Rand, W. L., & Schwartz, G. E. (2013). Practicing Reiki does not appear to routinely produce high-intensity electromagnetic fields from the heart or hands of Reiki practitioners. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 19(6), 518-526.
Baldwin, A. L., Vitale, A., Brownell, E., Scicinski, J., Kearns, M., & Rand, W. (2010). The Touchstone Process: an ongoing critical evaluation of reiki in the scientific literature. Holistic Nursing Practice, 24(5), 260-276.
Bao, T., Ye, X., Skinner, J., Cao, B., Fisher, J., Nesbit, S., & Grossman, S. A. (2011). The analgesic effect of magnetic acupressure in cancer patients undergoing bone marrow aspiration and biopsy: a randomized, blinded, controlled trial. Journal of Pain & Symptom Management, 41(6), 995-1002.
Barker, R., Kober, A., Hoerauf, K., Latzke, D., Adel, S., Kain, Z. N., & Wang, S. M. (2006). Out-of-hospital auricular acupressure in elder patients with hip fracture: a randomized double-blinded trial. Academic Emergency Medicine, 13(1), 19-23.
Bay, R., & Bay, F. (2011). Combined therapy using acupressure therapy, hypnotherapy, and transcendental meditation versus placebo in type 2 diabetes. Jams Journal of Acupuncture & Meridian Studies, 4(3), 183-186.
Bazarganipour, F., Lamyian, M., Heshmat, R., Abadi, M. A., & Taghavi, A. (2010). A randomized clinical trial of the efficacy of applying a simple acupressure protocol to the Taichong point in relieving dysmenorrhea. International Journal of Gynaecology & Obstetrics, 111(2), 105-109.
Beard, C., Stason, W. B., Wang, Q., Manola, J., Dean-Clower, E., Dusek, J. A., . . . Benson, H. (2011). Effects of complementary therapies on clinical outcomes in patients being treated with radiation therapy for prostate cancer. Cancer, 117(1), 96-102.
Berden, M., Jerman, I., & Skarja, M. (1997). A possible physical basis for the healing touch (biotherapy) evaluated by high voltage electrophotography. Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Research, 22(2), 127-146.
Bertalanffy, P., Hoerauf, K., Fleischhackl, R., Strasser, H., Wicke, F., Greher, M., . . . Kober, A. (2004). Korean hand acupressure for motion sickness in prehospital trauma care: a prospective, randomized, double-blinded trial in a geriatric population. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 98(1), 220-223, table of contents.
Birocco, N., Guillame, C., Storto, S., Ritorto, G., Catino, C., Gir, N., . . . Ciuffreda, L. (2012). The effects of Reiki therapy on pain and anxiety in patients attending a day oncology and infusion services unit. American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Medicine, 29(4), 290-294.
Bishop, F. L., Barlow, F., Walker, J., McDermott, C., & Lewith, G. T. (2010). The development and validation of an outcome measure for spiritual healing: a mixed methods study. Psychotherapy & Psychosomatics, 79(6), 350-362.
Blankfield, R. P., Sulzmann, C., Fradley, L. G., Tapolyai, A. A., & Zyzanski, S. J. (2001). Therapeutic touch in the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome. Journal of the American Board of Family Practice, 14(5), 335-342.
Bowden, D., Goddard, L., & Gruzelier, J. (2010). A randomised controlled single-blind trial of the effects of Reiki and positive imagery on well-being and salivary cortisol. Brain Research Bulletin, 81(1), 66-72.
Bradley, E., & Finlay, F. (2009). Towards evidence based medicine for paediatricians. Is cranio-sacral therapy useful in the management of crying babies? Archives of Disease in Childhood, 94(7), 555-556.
Bril, V., England, J. D., Franklin, G. M., Backonja, M., Cohen, J. A., Del Toro, D. R., . . . Rehabilitation. (2011). Evidence-based guideline: treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy-report of the American Association of Neuromuscular and Electrodiagnostic Medicine, the American Academy of Neurology, and the American Academy of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation. Muscle & Nerve, 43(6), 910-917.
Brooks, A. J., Schwartz, G. E., Reece, K., & Nangle, G. (2006). The effect of Johrei healing on substance abuse recovery: a pilot study. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 12(7), 625-631.
Brown, C. A., & Lido, C. (2008). Reflexology treatment for patients with lower limb amputations and phantom limb pain–an exploratory pilot study. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 14(2), 124-131.
Busch, M., Visser, A., Eybrechts, M., van Komen, R., Oen, I., Olff, M., . . . Boxma, H. (2012). The implementation and evaluation of therapeutic touch in burn patients: an instructive experience of conducting a scientific study within a non-academic nursing setting. Patient Education & Counseling, 89(3), 439-446.
Castro-Sanchez, A. M., Mataran-Penarrocha, G. A., Sanchez-Labraca, N., Quesada-Rubio, J. M., Granero-Molina, J., & Moreno-Lorenzo, C. (2011). A randomized controlled trial investigating the effects of craniosacral therapy on pain and heart rate variability in fibromyalgia patients. Clinical Rehabilitation, 25(1), 25-35.
Catlin, A., & Taylor-Ford, R. L. (2011). Investigation of standard care versus sham Reiki placebo versus actual Reiki therapy to enhance comfort and well-being in a chemotherapy infusion center. Oncology Nursing Forum, 38(3), E212-220.
Cerrone, R., Giani, L., Galbiati, B., Messina, G., Casiraghi, M., Proserpio, E., . . . Gardani, G. (2008). Efficacy of HT 7 point acupressure stimulation in the treatment of insomnia in cancer patients and in patients suffering from disorders other than cancer. Minerva Medica, 99(6), 535-537.
Chang, K. K., Wong, T. K., Wong, T. H., Leung, A. W., & Chung, J. W. (2011). Effect of acupressure in treating urodynamic stress incontinence: a randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Chinese Medicine, 39(6), 1139-1159.
Chao, H. L., Miao, S. J., Liu, P. F., Lee, H. H., Chen, Y. M., Yao, C. T., & Chou, H. L. (2013). The beneficial effect of ST-36 (Zusanli) acupressure on postoperative gastrointestinal function in patients with colorectal cancer. Oncology Nursing Forum, 40(2), E61-68.
Chen, H. H., Yeh, M. L., & Chao, Y. H. (2006). Comparing effects of auricular acupressure with and without an internet-assisted program on smoking cessation and self-efficacy of adolescents. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 12(2), 147-152.
Chen, H. M., Chang, F. Y., & Hsu, C. T. (2005). Effect of acupressure on nausea, vomiting, anxiety and pain among post-cesarean section women in Taiwan. Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences, 21(8), 341-350.
Chen, H. M., & Chen, C. H. (2010). Effects of acupressure on menstrual distress in adolescent girls: a comparison between Hegu-Sanyinjiao matched points and Hegu, Zusanli single point. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 19(7-8), 998-1007.
Chen, J. H., Chao, Y. H., Lu, S. F., Shiung, T. F., & Chao, Y. F. (2010). The effectiveness of valerian acupressure on the sleep of ICU patients: a randomized clinical trial. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 49(8), 913-920.
Chen, K. W., Berger, C. C., Gandhi, D., Weintraub, E., & Lejuez, C. W. (2013). Adding integrative meditation with ear acupressure to outpatient treatment of cocaine addiction: a randomized controlled pilot study. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 19(3), 204-210.
Chen, L. L., Su, Y. C., Su, C. H., Lin, H. C., & Kuo, H. W. (2008). Acupressure and meridian massage: combined effects on increasing body weight in premature infants.[Erratum appears in J Clin Nurs. 2008 Aug;17(15):2089]. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 17(9), 1174-1181.
Chung, Y. C., Chen, H. H., & Yeh, M. L. (2012). Acupoint stimulation intervention for people with primary dysmenorrhea: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 20(5), 353-363.
Collinge, W., Wentworth, R., & Sabo, S. (2005). Integrating complementary therapies into community mental health practice: an exploration. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 11(3), 569-574.
Collins, K. B., & Thomas, D. J. (2004). Acupuncture and acupressure for the management of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 16(2), 76-80.
Cook, C. A., Guerrerio, J. F., & Slater, V. E. (2004). Healing touch and quality of life in women receiving radiation treatment for cancer: a randomized controlled trial. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine, 10(3), 34-41.
Crawford, S. E., Leaver, V. W., & Mahoney, S. D. (2006). Using Reiki to decrease memory and behavior problems in mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer’s disease. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 12(9), 911-913.
Cuneo, C. L., Curtis Cooper, M. R., Drew, C. S., Naoum-Heffernan, C., Sherman, T., Walz, K., & Weinberg, J. (2011). The effect of Reiki on work-related stress of the registered nurse. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 29(1), 33-43.
Curtis, P., Gaylord, S. A., Park, J., Faurot, K. R., Coble, R., Suchindran, C., . . . Mann, J. D. (2011). Credibility of low-strength static magnet therapy as an attention control intervention for a randomized controlled study of CranioSacral therapy for migraine headaches. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 17(8), 711-721.
Dalal, K., Devarajan, E., Pandey, R. M., Subbiah, V., & Tripathi, M. (2013). Role of reflexology and antiepileptic drugs in managing intractable epilepsy-a randomized controlled trial. Forsch Komplementmed, 20(2), 104-111. doi: 10.1159/000350047.
Danhauer, S. C., Tooze, J. A., Holder, P., Miller, C., & Jesse, M. T. (2008). Healing touch as a supportive intervention for adult acute leukemia patients: a pilot investigation of effects on distress and symptoms. Journal Of The Society For Integrative Oncology, 6(3), 89-97.
Darbandi, M., Darbandi, S., Mobarhan, M. G., Owji, A. A., Zhao, B., Iraji, K., . . . Mokarram, P. (2012). Effects of auricular acupressure combined with low-calorie diet on the leptin hormone in obese and overweight Iranian individuals. Acupuncture in Medicine, 30(3), 208-213.
Diaz-Rodriguez, L., Arroyo-Morales, M., Cantarero-Villanueva, I., Fernandez-Lao, C., Polley, M., & Fernandez-de-las-Penas, C. (2011). The application of Reiki in nurses diagnosed with Burnout Syndrome has beneficial effects on concentration of salivary IgA and blood pressure. Revista Latino-Americana de Enfermagem, 19(5), 1132-1138.
Diaz-Rodriguez, L., Arroyo-Morales, M., Fernandez-de-las-Penas, C., Garcia-Lafuente, F., Garcia-Royo, C., & Tomas-Rojas, I. (2011). Immediate effects of reiki on heart rate variability, cortisol levels, and body temperature in health care professionals with burnout. Biological Research for Nursing, 13(4), 376-382.
Dibble, S. L., Luce, J., Cooper, B. A., Israel, J., Cohen, M., Nussey, B., & Rugo, H. (2007). Acupressure for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: a randomized clinical trial. Oncology Nursing Forum, 34(4), 813-820.
Dowd, T., Kolcaba, K., Steiner, R., & Fashinpaur, D. (2007). Comparison of a healing touch, coaching, and a combined intervention on comfort and stress in younger college students. Holistic Nursing Practice, 21(4), 194-202.
Downey, P. A., Barbano, T., Kapur-Wadhwa, R., Sciote, J. J., Siegel, M. I., & Mooney, M. P. (2006). Craniosacral therapy: the effects of cranial manipulation on intracranial pressure and cranial bone movement. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 36(11), 845-853.
Dullenkopf, A., Schmitz, A., Lamesic, G., Weiss, M., & Lang, A. (2004). The influence of acupressure on the monitoring of acoustic evoked potentials in unsedated adult volunteers. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 99(4), 1147-1151, table of contents.
Dyer, J., Thomas, K., Sandsund, C., & Shaw, C. (2013). Is reflexology as effective as aromatherapy massage for symptom relief in an adult outpatient oncology population? Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 19(3), 139-146.
Ebrahim Soltani, A., Mohammadinasab, H., Goudarzi, M., Arbabi, S., Mohtaram, R., Afkham, K., . . . Darabi, M. E. (2010). Acupressure using ondansetron versus metoclopramide on reduction of postoperative nausea and vomiting after strabismus surgery. Archives of Iranian Medicine, 13(4), 288-293.
Elden, H., Ostgaard, H. C., Glantz, A., Marciniak, P., Linner, A. C., & Olsen, M. F. (2013). Effects of craniosacral therapy as adjunct to standard treatment for pelvic girdle pain in pregnant women: a multicenter, single blind, randomized controlled trial. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 92(7), 775-782.
Elder, C., Gallison, C., Lindberg, N. M., DeBar, L., Funk, K., Ritenbaugh, C., & Stevens, V. J. (2010). Randomized trial of Tapas Acupressure Technique for weight loss maintenance: rationale and study design. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 16(6), 683-690.
Elder, C., Ritenbaugh, C., Mist, S., Aickin, M., Schneider, J., Zwickey, H., & Elmer, P. (2007). Randomized trial of two mind-body interventions for weight-loss maintenance. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 13(1), 67-78.
Elder, C. R., Gullion, C. M., Debar, L. L., Funk, K. L., Lindberg, N. M., Ritenbaugh, C., . . . Stevens, V. J. (2012). Randomized trial of Tapas Acupressure Technique for weight loss maintenance. BMC Complementary & Alternative Medicine, 12, 19.
Ezzo, J., Streitberger, K., & Schneider, A. (2006). Cochrane systematic reviews examine P6 acupuncture-point stimulation for nausea and vomiting. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 12(5), 489-495.
Ezzo, J., Vickers, A., Richardson, M. A., Allen, C., Dibble, S. L., Issell, B., . . . Zhang, G. (2005). Acupuncture-point stimulation for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 23(28), 7188-7198.
Ezzo, J. M., Richardson, M. A., Vickers, A., Allen, C., Dibble, S. L., Issell, B. F., . . . Zhang, G. (2006). Acupuncture-point stimulation for chemotherapy-induced nausea or vomiting. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews(2), CD002285.
Fassoulaki, A., Paraskeva, A., Kostopanagiotou, G., Tsakalozou, E., & Markantonis, S. (2007). Acupressure on the extra 1 acupoint: the effect on bispectral index, serum melatonin, plasma beta-endorphin, and stress. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 104(2), 312-317.
Forbes, M. A., Rust, R., & Becker, G. J. (2004). Surface electromyography apparatus as a measurement device for biofield research: results from a single case study. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 10(4), 617-626.
Frank, L. S., Frank, J. L., March, D., Makari-Judson, G., Barham, R. B., & Mertens, W. C. (2007). Does therapeutic touch ease the discomfort or distress of patients undergoing stereotactic core breast biopsy? A randomized clinical trial. Pain Medicine, 8(5), 419-424.
Friedman, R. S., Burg, M. M., Miles, P., Lee, F., & Lampert, R. (2010). Effects of Reiki on autonomic activity early after acute coronary syndrome. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 56(12), 995-996.
Gardani, G., Cerrone, R., Biella, C., Galbiati, G., Proserpio, E., Casiraghi, M., . . . Lissoni, P. (2007). A progress study of 100 cancer patients treated by acupressure for chemotherapy-induced vomiting after failure with the pharmacological approach. Minerva Medica, 98(6), 665-668.
Gardani, G., Cerrone, R., Biella, C., Mancini, L., Proserpio, E., Casiraghi, M., . . . Lissoni, P. (2006). Effect of acupressure on nausea and vomiting induced by chemotherapy in cancer patients. Minerva Medica, 97(5), 391-394.
Gasiorowska, A., Navarro-Rodriguez, T., Dickman, R., Wendel, C., Moty, B., Powers, J., . . . Fass, R. (2009). Clinical trial: the effect of Johrei on symptoms of patients with functional chest pain. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 29(1), 126-134.
Green, C., Martin, C. W., Bassett, K., & Kazanjian, A. (1999). A systematic review of craniosacral therapy: biological plausibility, assessment reliability and clinical effectiveness. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 7(4), 201-207.
Greenman, P. E., & McPartland, J. M. (1995). Cranial findings and iatrogenesis from craniosacral manipulation in patients with traumatic brain syndrome. Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, 95(3), 182-188; 191-182.
Gronowicz, G. A., Jhaveri, A., Clarke, L. W., Aronow, M. S., & Smith, T. H. (2008). Therapeutic touch stimulates the proliferation of human cells in culture. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 14(3), 233-239.
Gunnarsdottir, T. J., & Jonsdottir, H. (2007). Does the experimental design capture the effects of complementary therapy? A study using reflexology for patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 16(4), 777-785.
Habek, D., Barbir, A., Habek, J. C., Janculiak, D., & Bobic-Vukovic, M. (2004). Success of acupuncture and acupressure of the Pc 6 acupoint in the treatment of hyperemesis gravidarum. Forschende Komplementarmedizin und Klassische Naturheilkunde, 11(1), 20-23.
Hagemaster, J. (2000). Use of therapeutic touch in treatment of drug addictions. Holistic Nursing Practice, 14(3), 14-20. Hallett, A. (2004). Narratives of therapeutic touch. Nursing Standard, 19(1), 33-37.
Hammerschlag, R., Marx, B., Yamamoto, M., & Aickin, M. (2012). Non-touch biofield therapy: a systematic review of human randomized controlled trials reporting use of only non-physical contact treatment P02.42. BMC Complement Altern Med., 12((Suppl 1)), P98.
Harris, R. E., Jeter, J., Chan, P., Higgins, P., Kong, F. M., Fazel, R., . . . Gillespie, B. (2005). Using acupressure to modify alertness in the classroom: a single-blinded, randomized, cross-over trial. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 11(4), 673-679.
Heazell, A., Thorneycroft, J., Walton, V., & Etherington, I. (2006). Acupressure for the in-patient treatment of nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy: a randomized control trial. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, 194(3), 815-820.
Helmreich, R. J., Shiao, S. Y., & Dune, L. S. (2006). Meta-analysis of acustimulation effects on nausea and vomiting in pregnant women.[Erratum appears in Explore (NY). 2007 Mar-Apr;3(2):94]. Explore: The Journal of Science & Healing, 2(5), 412-421.
Her, J. S., Liu, P. L., Cheng, N. C., Hung, H. C., Huang, P. H., Chen, Y. L., . . . Chen, Y. H. (2010). Intraocular pressure-lowering effect of auricular acupressure in patients with glaucoma: a prospective, single-blinded, randomized controlled trial. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 16(11), 1177-1184.
Hjelmstedt, A., Shenoy, S. T., Stener-Victorin, E., Lekander, M., Bhat, M., Balakumaran, L., & Waldenstrom, U. (2010). Acupressure to reduce labor pain: a randomized controlled trial. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 89(11), 1453-1459.
Hoffman, M. J. (1998). Therapeutic touch is back. Caring, 17(4), 26-28, 30.
Holt, J., Lord, J., Acharya, U., White, A., O’Neill, N., Shaw, S., & Barton, A. (2009). The effectiveness of foot reflexology in inducing ovulation: a sham-controlled randomized trial. Fertility & Sterility, 91(6), 2514-2519.
Honda, N., Ohgi, S., Wada, N., Loo, K. K., Higashimoto, Y., & Fukuda, K. (2013). Effect of therapeutic touch on brain activation of preterm infants in response to sensory punctate stimulus: a near-infrared spectroscopy-based study. Archives of Disease in Childhood Fetal & Neonatal Edition, 98(3), F244-248.
Hsieh, C. H., Su, T. J., Fang, Y. W., & Chou, P. H. (2011). Effects of auricular acupressure on weight reduction and abdominal obesity in Asian young adults: a randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Chinese Medicine, 39(3), 433-440.
Hsieh, L. L., Kuo, C. H., Lee, L. H., Yen, A. M., Chien, K. L., & Chen, T. H. (2006). Treatment of low back pain by acupressure and physical therapy: randomised controlled trial. BMJ, 332(7543), 696-700.
Hsieh, L. L., Liou, H. H., Lee, L. H., Chen, T. H., & Yen, A. M. (2010). Effect of acupressure and trigger points in treating headache: a randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Chinese Medicine, 38(1), 1-14.
Hsiu, H., Hsu, W. C., Chen, B. H., & Hsu, C. L. (2010). Differences in the microcirculatory effects of local skin surface contact pressure stimulation between acupoints and nonacupoints: possible relevance to acupressure. Physiological Measurement, 31(6), 829-841.
Huff, M. B., McClanahan, K. K., & Omar, H. A. (2006). From healing the whole person: an argument for therapeutic touch as a complement to traditional medical practice. Thescientificworldjournal, 6, 2188-2195.
Hughes, C. M., Krirsnakriengkrai, S., Kumar, S., & McDonough, S. M. (2011). The effect of reflexology on the autonomic nervous system in healthy adults: a feasibility study. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine, 17(3), 32-37.
Hughes, C. M., McCullough, C. A., Bradbury, I., Boyde, C., Hume, D., Yuan, J., . . . McDonough, S. M. (2009). Acupuncture and reflexology for insomnia: a feasibility study. Acupuncture in Medicine, 27(4), 163-168.
Hughes, C. M., Smyth, S., & Lowe-Strong, A. S. (2009). Reflexology for the treatment of pain in people with multiple sclerosis: a double-blind randomised sham-controlled clinical trial. Multiple Sclerosis, 15(11), 1329-1338.
Jackson, E., Kelley, M., McNeil, P., Meyer, E., Schlegel, L., & Eaton, M. (2008). Does therapeutic touch help reduce pain and anxiety in patients with cancer? Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing, 12(1), 113-120.
Jain, S., McMahon, G. F., Hasen, P., Kozub, M. P., Porter, V., King, R., & Guarneri, E. M. (2012). Healing Touch with Guided Imagery for PTSD in returning active duty military: a randomized controlled trial. Military Medicine, 177(9), 1015-1021.
Jain, S., Pavlik, D., Distefan, J., Bruyere, R. L., Acer, J., Garcia, R., . . . Mills, P. J. (2012). Complementary medicine for fatigue and cortisol variability in breast cancer survivors: a randomized controlled trial. Cancer, 118(3), 777-787.
Jhaveri, A., Walsh, S. J., Wang, Y., McCarthy, M., & Gronowicz, G. (2008). Therapeutic touch affects DNA synthesis and mineralization of human osteoblasts in culture. Journal of Orthopaedic Research, 26(11), 1541-1546.
Jin, K. K., Chen, L., Pan, J. Y., Li, J. M., Wang, Y., & Wang, F. Y. (2009). Acupressure therapy inhibits the development of diabetic complications in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 15(9), 1027-1032.
Johnston, C., Campbell-Yeo, M., Rich, B., Whitley, J., Filion, F., Cogan, J., & Walker, C. D. (2013). Therapeutic touch is not therapeutic for procedural pain in very preterm neonates: a randomized trial. Clin J Pain, 29(9), 824-829. doi: 10.1097/AJP.0b013e3182757650.
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The following information is a brief rationale on the reasons for the exclusion of these modalities from our literature search. Keep in mind, we are comparing the core aspects of the practices of each modality. Our comparison is admittedly imperfect, and not intended to be a source of debate.
EFT – The core of EFT and its variants are a type of Energy Psychology, which is significantly different than EM, and EEM. The primary mechanism for EFT is the use of tapping meridian points. There are no exercises to activate and balance subtle energy systems, or work with other subtle energy systems. There is no practitioner based hands on healing involved. In addition, an up-to-date research bibliography can be found at Research.EFTuniverse.com.
Acupuncture – this modality works with the Meridians, a subtle energy system, and in some instances may utilize other energy systems that are engaged with Eden Energy Medicine (EEM; Radiant Circuits or the 5 Rhythms.) Yet the primary mechanism for stimulating these energies is the use of acupuncture needles. Typically these are placed in specified locations on the body, and then the practitioner leaves the client alone to let the needles stimulate their energies. This is a fundamentally different than the methodologies used in an EEM session, or when EEM is used for self-care, therefore we did not consider it significantly close in nature to EEM.
Traditional Massage – this modality uses techniques that are also found in EEM, although the emphasis in massage is to work with soft tissues, whereas in EEM it is to work with energy systems. Less frequently, or absent altogether, are there exercises or techniques used to directly stimulate subtle energies. More importantly, the typical rationale for the benefits of massage are explained via muscular skeletal alignment, or soft tissue release, and are not explained via the balancing of subtle energies.
Yoga – yoga is an ancient practice which has many different branches and expressions. In the US, emphasis is on the postural and breathing practices, which fall into the branch referred to as Hatha Yoga. There is some similarity between yoga postures and EEM Daily Energy Exercises or other EEM exercises. In fact some are very similar. However the execution of those practices are quite different than the use of EEM exercises of a private EEM session. Hatha Yoga is primarily a group based, teacher led experience, and there are not typically hands on based healing techniques as a core component of the major branches of Hatha yoga.