Energy Medicine Research References

This bibliography has been prepared by the Energy Medicine Research Network (EMRN) and is hosted by the National Institute for Integrative Healthcare (NIIH). A literature search was undertaken by Sandra Shipp, EEM-AP and Anne Rosebrook, MLP, and lists studies that have met the following criteria:

  • They assess the use of hands-on healing or interventions within the body’s energy field;
  • They use energetic exercises or techniques to balance the body’s energy systems;
  • The explanation they use for the effects of treatment is based on changes to the body’s energy field.

The Energy Medicine Research Network describes the search criteria as follows:

In order to complete the literature search, Ovid/Medline and PubMed medical databases were searched using the following keywords: acupressure, “Barbara Brennan”, biofield, cranio-sacral therapy, “body talk,” “energy medicine,” “energy healing,” “healing touch,” johrei, “polarity therapy,” “pranic healing,” “quantum touch,” reflexology, reiki, shiatsu, “touch for health,” “touch therapy,” and the MESH controlled vocabulary term “therapeutic touch.” Search results were limited to English language and human subject research. The results were visually scanned to eliminate general overviews of a modality, letters to the Editor, interviews, or other non-research publications. A broad range of reports was still included, ranging from more case studies to sophisticated clinical trials to systematic reviews of previously published studies.

This articles selected according to the criteria outlined above are presented as an APA-formatted reference list. They have not been reviewed to assess a positive, negative, or neutral outcome of the research, research methodology, or quality of research. It is merely a list of articles meeting the stated criteria.

The literature search identified 600+ studies encompassing the following Energy Medicine modalities:

  • Acupressure
  • Auricular Acupressure
  • Brennan Healing Science
  • Biofield Healing
  • Body Talk
  • Craniosacral therapy
  • Healing Touch
  • Johrei
  • Polarity Therapy
  • Pranic Healing
  • Quantum Touch
  • Reflexology
  • Reiki
  • Shiatsu
  • Therapeutic Touch
  • Touch for Health
  • Touch Therapy

Acupuncture, Distant Healing, EFT (Emotional Freedom Techniques), Energy Psychology, Massage, Prayer and Yoga are not included in this bibliography. The rationale for this exclusion can be found in an Appendix below the list of studies. Below are links to bibliographies for these modalities where available. The explanation of the process used to conduct the literature search, and full inclusion and exclusion criteria, is available in a PDF of the original list.

The original search was undertaken in May 2014 and the list is updated by EMRN volunteers periodically. If you’re aware of a study you feel should be included in the list, please read the full article first, and if you still feel the article should be included, please email us and it will be considered for inclusion during the next update.

Additional reference lists on other subsets of Energy Medicine are available at the links below:

Many of the above bibliographies are not current; we would also appreciate links to up-to-date sources if you’re aware of them. Thanks for your support of energy medicine!

Energy Medicine Research Bibliography

A, R. K., & Kurup, P. A. (2003). Changes in the isoprenoid pathway with transcendental meditation and Reiki healing practices in seizure disorder. Neurology India, 51(2), 211-214.

Abraham, J. (2008). Acupressure and acupuncture in preventing and managing postoperative nausea and vomiting in adults. Journal of Perioperative Practice, 18(12), 543-551.

Agarwal, A., Dhiraaj, S., Tandon, M., Singh, P. K., Singh, U., & Pawar, S. (2005). Evaluation of capsaicin ointment at the Korean hand acupressure point K-D2 for prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anaesthesia, 60(12), 1185-1188.

Agarwal, A., Ranjan, R., Dhiraaj, S., Lakra, A., Kumar, M., & Singh, U. (2005). Acupressure for prevention of pre-operative anxiety: a prospective, randomised, placebo controlled study. Anaesthesia, 60(10), 978-981.

Agdal, R., von, B. H. J., & Johannessen, H. (2011). Energy healing for cancer: a critical review. Forschende Komplementarmedizin (2006), 18(3), 146-154.

Ai, A. L., Peterson, C., Gillespie, B., Bolling, S. F., Jessup, M. G., Behling, B. A., & Pierce, F. (2001). Designing clinical trials on energy healing: ancient art encounters medical science. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine, 7(4), 83-90.

Alandydy, P., & Alandydy, K. (1999). Using Reiki to support surgical patients. Journal of Nursing Care Quality, 13(4), 89-91.

Alessandrini, M., Napolitano, B., Micarelli, A., de Padova, A., & Bruno, E. (2012). P6 acupressure effectiveness on acute vertiginous patients: a double blind randomized study. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 18(12), 1121-1126.

Alkaissi, A., Ledin, T., Odkvist, L. M., & Kalman, S. (2005). P6 acupressure increases tolerance to nauseogenic motion stimulation in women at high risk for PONV. Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, 52(7), 703-709.

Allais, G., Rolando, S., Castagnoli Gabellari, I., Burzio, C., Airola, G., Borgogno, P., . . . Benedetto, C. (2012). Acupressure in the control of migraine-associated nausea. Neurological Sciences, 33 Suppl 1, S207-210.

Anderson, J. G., & Taylor, A. G. (2011a). Biofield therapies in cardiovascular disease management: a brief review. Holistic Nursing Practice, 25(4), 199-204.

Anderson, J. G., & Taylor, A. G. (2011b). Effects of healing touch in clinical practice: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 29(3), 221-228.

Anderson, J. G., & Taylor, A. G. (2012). Biofield therapies and cancer pain. Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing, 16(1), 43-48.

Anonymous. (2005). Healing touch: hands-on help for the heart? Touch therapies are reaching growing numbers of patients. Harvard Heart Letter, 16(2), 3.

Anonymous. (2007). Management of cancer pain with complementary therapies. Oncology (Williston Park), 21(4 Suppl), 10-22; discussion 22.

Apostle-Mitchell, M., & MacDonald, G. (1997). An innovative approach to pain management in critical care: therapeutic touch. CACCN, 8(3), 19-22.

Arai, Y. C., Ushida, T., Osuga, T., Matsubara, T., Oshima, K., Kawaguchi, K., . . . Watakabe, K. (2008). The effect of acupressure at the extra 1 point on subjective and autonomic responses to needle insertion. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 107(2), 661-664.

Arnadottir, T. S., & Sigurdardottir, A. K. (2013). Is craniosacral therapy effective for migraine? Tested with HIT-6 Questionnaire. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 19(1), 11-14.

Assefi, N., Bogart, A., Goldberg, J., & Buchwald, D. (2008). Reiki for the treatment of fibromyalgia: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 14(9), 1115-1122.

Atkins, R. C., & Harris, P. (2008). Using reflexology to manage stress in the workplace: a preliminary study. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 14(4), 280-287.

Attlee, T. (1994). Cranio-sacral therapy and the treatment of common childhood conditions. Health Visitor, 67(7), 232-234.

Aveyard, B., Sykes, M., & Doherty, D. (2002). Therapeutic touch in dementia care. Nursing Older People, 14(6), 20-21.

Bair, C. C. (2008). The heart field effect: Synchronization of healer-subject heart rates in energy therapy. Advances in Mind-Body Medicine, 23(4), 10-19.

Baldwin, A. L., Rand, W. L., & Schwartz, G. E. (2013). Practicing Reiki does not appear to routinely produce high-intensity electromagnetic fields from the heart or hands of Reiki practitioners. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 19(6), 518-526.

Baldwin, A. L., & Schwartz, G. E. (2012). Physiological changes in energy healers during self-practice. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 20(5), 299-305.

Baldwin, A. L., Vitale, A., Brownell, E., Scicinski, J., Kearns, M., & Rand, W. (2010). The Touchstone Process: an ongoing critical evaluation of reiki in the scientific literature. Holistic Nursing Practice, 24(5), 260-276.

Baldwin, A. L., Wagers, C., & Schwartz, G. E. (2008). Reiki improves heart rate homeostasis in laboratory rats. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 14(4), 417-422.

Bamigboye, A. A., & Smyth, R. (2007). Interventions for varicose veins and leg oedema in pregnancy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews(1), CD001066.

Bao, T., Ye, X., Skinner, J., Cao, B., Fisher, J., Nesbit, S., & Grossman, S. A. (2011). The analgesic effect of magnetic acupressure in cancer patients undergoing bone marrow aspiration and biopsy: a randomized, blinded, controlled trial. Journal of Pain & Symptom Management, 41(6), 995-1002.

Barker, R., Kober, A., Hoerauf, K., Latzke, D., Adel, S., Kain, Z. N., & Wang, S. M. (2006). Out-of-hospital auricular acupressure in elder patients with hip fracture: a randomized double-blinded trial. Academic Emergency Medicine, 13(1), 19-23.

Bay, R., & Bay, F. (2011). Combined therapy using acupressure therapy, hypnotherapy, and transcendental meditation versus placebo in type 2 diabetes. Jams Journal of Acupuncture & Meridian Studies, 4(3), 183-186.

Bazarganipour, F., Lamyian, M., Heshmat, R., Abadi, M. A., & Taghavi, A. (2010). A randomized clinical trial of the efficacy of applying a simple acupressure protocol to the Taichong point in relieving dysmenorrhea. International Journal of Gynaecology & Obstetrics, 111(2), 105-109.

Beard, C., Stason, W. B., Wang, Q., Manola, J., Dean-Clower, E., Dusek, J. A., . . . Benson, H. (2011). Effects of complementary therapies on clinical outcomes in patients being treated with radiation therapy for prostate cancer. Cancer, 117(1), 96-102.

Becze, E. (2010). P6 acupressure can help patients self-manage chemotherapy-induced nausea. ONS Connect, 25(11), 20-21.

Begley, S. S. (2002). The energetic language of therapeutic touch. A holistic tool for nurse practitioners. Advance for Nurse Practitioners, 10(5), 69-71.

Benford, M. S., Talnagi, J., Doss, D. B., Boosey, S., & Arnold, L. E. (1999). Gamma radiation fluctuations during alternative healing therapy. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine, 5(4), 51-56.

Berden, M., Jerman, I., & Skarja, M. (1997). A possible physical basis for the healing touch (biotherapy) evaluated by high voltage electrophotography. Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Research, 22(2), 127-146.

Bertalanffy, P., Hoerauf, K., Fleischhackl, R., Strasser, H., Wicke, F., Greher, M., . . . Kober, A. (2004). Korean hand acupressure for motion sickness in prehospital trauma care: a prospective, randomized, double-blinded trial in a geriatric population. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 98(1), 220-223, table of contents.

Biley, F. C. (1996). Rogerian science, phantoms, and therapeutic touch: exploring potentials. Nursing Science Quarterly, 9(4), 165-169.

Birocco, N., Guillame, C., Storto, S., Ritorto, G., Catino, C., Gir, N., . . . Ciuffreda, L. (2012). The effects of Reiki therapy on pain and anxiety in patients attending a day oncology and infusion services unit. American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Medicine, 29(4), 290-294.

Bishop, E., McKinnon, E., Weir, E., & Brown, D. W. (2003). Reflexology in the management of encopresis and chronic constipation. Paediatric Nursing, 15(3), 20-21.

Bishop, F. L., Barlow, F., Walker, J., McDermott, C., & Lewith, G. T. (2010). The development and validation of an outcome measure for spiritual healing: a mixed methods study. Psychotherapy & Psychosomatics, 79(6), 350-362.

Blankfield, R. P., Sulzmann, C., Fradley, L. G., Tapolyai, A. A., & Zyzanski, S. J. (2001). Therapeutic touch in the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome. Journal of the American Board of Family Practice, 14(5), 335-342.

Bogulawski, M. (1980). Therapeutic touch: a facilitator of pain relief. Topics in Clinical Nursing, 2(1), 27-37.

Bossi, L. M., Ott, M. J., & DeCristofaro, S. (2008). Reiki as a clinical intervention in oncology nursing practice. Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing, 12(3), 489-494.

Botting, D. (1997). Review of literature on the effectiveness of reflexology. Complementary Therapies in Nursing & Midwifery, 3(5), 123-130.

Bourque, A. L., Sullivan, M. E., & Winter, M. R. (2012). Reiki as a pain management adjunct in screening colonoscopy. Gastroenterology Nursing, 35(5), 308-312.

Bowden, D., Goddard, L., & Gruzelier, J. (2010). A randomised controlled single-blind trial of the effects of Reiki and positive imagery on well-being and salivary cortisol. Brain Research Bulletin, 81(1), 66-72.

Bradley, E., & Finlay, F. (2009). Towards evidence based medicine for paediatricians. Is cranio-sacral therapy useful in the management of crying babies? Archives of Disease in Childhood, 94(7), 555-556.

Brathovde, A. (2006). A pilot study: Reiki for self-care of nurses and healthcare providers. Holistic Nursing Practice, 20(2), 95-101.

Braun, C., Layton, J., & Braun, J. (1986). Therapeutic touch improves residents’ sleep. American Health Care Association Journal, 12(1), 48-49.

Bril, V., England, J. D., Franklin, G. M., Backonja, M., Cohen, J. A., Del Toro, D. R., . . . Rehabilitation. (2011). Evidence-based guideline: treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy-report of the American Association of Neuromuscular and Electrodiagnostic Medicine, the American Academy of Neurology, and the American Academy of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation. Muscle & Nerve, 43(6), 910-917.

Brooks, A. J., Schwartz, G. E., Reece, K., & Nangle, G. (2006). The effect of Johrei healing on substance abuse recovery: a pilot study. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 12(7), 625-631.

Brown, C. A., & Lido, C. (2008). Reflexology treatment for patients with lower limb amputations and phantom limb pain–an exploratory pilot study. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 14(2), 124-131.

Bryant, J. P. (1996). Therapeutic touch in home healthcare: one nurse’s experience. Home Healthcare Nurse, 14(8), 580-586.

Brygge, T., Heinig, J. H., Collins, P., Ronborg, S., Gehrchen, P. M., Hilden, J., . . . Poulsen, L. K. (2001). Reflexology and bronchial asthma. Respiratory Medicine, 95(3), 173-179.

Bullock, M. (1997). Reiki: a complementary therapy for life. American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Medicine, 14(1), 31-33.

Bullough, V. L., & Bullough, B. (1998). Should nurses practice therapeutic touch? Should nursing schools teach therapeutic touch? Journal of Professional Nursing, 14(4), 254-257.

Burden, B., Herron-Marx, S., & Clifford, C. (2005). The increasing use of reiki as a complementary therapy in specialist palliative care. International Journal of Palliative Nursing, 11(5), 248-253.

Burr, J. P. (2005). Jayne’s story: healing touch as a complementary treatment for trauma recovery. Holistic Nursing Practice, 19(5), 211-216.

Busch, M., Visser, A., Eybrechts, M., van Komen, R., Oen, I., Olff, M., . . . Boxma, H. (2012). The implementation and evaluation of therapeutic touch in burn patients: an instructive experience of conducting a scientific study within a non-academic nursing setting. Patient Education & Counseling, 89(3), 439-446.

Can Gurkan, O., & Arslan, H. (2008). Effect of acupressure on nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 14(1), 46-52.

Castro-Sanchez, A. M., Mataran-Penarrocha, G. A., Sanchez-Labraca, N., Quesada-Rubio, J. M., Granero-Molina, J., & Moreno-Lorenzo, C. (2011). A randomized controlled trial investigating the effects of craniosacral therapy on pain and heart rate variability in fibromyalgia patients. Clinical Rehabilitation, 25(1), 25-35.

Catlin, A., & Taylor-Ford, R. L. (2011). Investigation of standard care versus sham Reiki placebo versus actual Reiki therapy to enhance comfort and well-being in a chemotherapy infusion center. Oncology Nursing Forum, 38(3), E212-220.

Cerrone, R., Giani, L., Galbiati, B., Messina, G., Casiraghi, M., Proserpio, E., . . . Gardani, G. (2008). Efficacy of HT 7 point acupressure stimulation in the treatment of insomnia in cancer patients and in patients suffering from disorders other than cancer. Minerva Medica, 99(6), 535-537.

Chang, K. K., Wong, T. K., Wong, T. H., Leung, A. W., & Chung, J. W. (2011). Effect of acupressure in treating urodynamic stress incontinence: a randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Chinese Medicine, 39(6), 1139-1159.

Chang, S. O. (2001). Meaning of Ki related to touch in caring. Holistic Nursing Practice, 16(1), 73-84.

Chang, S. O. (2003). The nature of touch therapy related to Ki: practitioners’ perspective. Nursing & Health Sciences, 5(2), 103-114.

Chao, H. L., Miao, S. J., Liu, P. F., Lee, H. H., Chen, Y. M., Yao, C. T., & Chou, H. L. (2013). The beneficial effect of ST-36 (Zusanli) acupressure on postoperative gastrointestinal function in patients with colorectal cancer. Oncology Nursing Forum, 40(2), E61-68.

Chen, C. H., Chen, H. H., Yeh, M. L., & Tsay, S. L. (2010). Effects of ear acupressure in improving visual health in children. American Journal of Chinese Medicine, 38(3), 431-439.

Chen, H. H., Yeh, M. L., & Chao, Y. H. (2006). Comparing effects of auricular acupressure with and without an internet-assisted program on smoking cessation and self-efficacy of adolescents. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 12(2), 147-152.

Chen, H. M., Chang, F. Y., & Hsu, C. T. (2005). Effect of acupressure on nausea, vomiting, anxiety and pain among post-cesarean section women in Taiwan. Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences, 21(8), 341-350.

Chen, H. M., & Chen, C. H. (2004). Effects of acupressure at the Sanyinjiao point on primary dysmenorrhoea. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 48(4), 380-387.

Chen, H. M., & Chen, C. H. (2010). Effects of acupressure on menstrual distress in adolescent girls: a comparison between Hegu-Sanyinjiao matched points and Hegu, Zusanli single point. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 19(7-8), 998-1007.

Chen, J. H., Chao, Y. H., Lu, S. F., Shiung, T. F., & Chao, Y. F. (2010). The effectiveness of valerian acupressure on the sleep of ICU patients: a randomized clinical trial. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 49(8), 913-920.

Chen, K. W., Berger, C. C., Gandhi, D., Weintraub, E., & Lejuez, C. W. (2013). Adding integrative meditation with ear acupressure to outpatient treatment of cocaine addiction: a randomized controlled pilot study. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 19(3), 204-210.

Chen, L. L., Su, Y. C., Su, C. H., Lin, H. C., & Kuo, H. W. (2008). Acupressure and meridian massage: combined effects on increasing body weight in premature infants.[Erratum appears in J Clin Nurs. 2008 Aug;17(15):2089]. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 17(9), 1174-1181.

Cho, S. H., & Hwang, E. W. (2010). Acupressure for primary dysmenorrhoea: a systematic review. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 18(1), 49-56.

Cho, Y. C., & Tsay, S. L. (2004). The effect of acupressure with massage on fatigue and depression in patients with end-stage renal disease. Journal of Nursing Research, 12(1), 51-59.

Christine, D. C. (2009). Temporal bone misalignment and motion asymmetry as a cause of vertigo: the craniosacral model. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine, 15(6), 38-42.

Chung, Y. C., Chen, H. H., & Yeh, M. L. (2012). Acupoint stimulation intervention for people with primary dysmenorrhea: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 20(5), 353-363.

Clark, P. E., & Clark, M. J. (1984). Therapeutic touch: is there a scientific basis for the practice? Nursing Research, 33(1), 37-41.

Coakley, A. B., & Barron, A. M. (2012). Energy therapies in oncology nursing. Seminars in Oncology Nursing, 28(1), 55-63.

Coakley, A. B., & Duffy, M. E. (2010). The effect of therapeutic touch on postoperative patients. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 28(3), 193-200.

Collinge, W., Wentworth, R., & Sabo, S. (2005). Integrating complementary therapies into community mental health practice: an exploration. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 11(3), 569-574.

Collins, K. B., & Thomas, D. J. (2004). Acupuncture and acupressure for the management of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 16(2), 76-80.

Connor, A., & Howett, M. (2009). A conceptual model of intentional comfort touch. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 27(2), 127-135.

Cook, C. A., Guerrerio, J. F., & Slater, V. E. (2004). Healing touch and quality of life in women receiving radiation treatment for cancer: a randomized controlled trial. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine, 10(3), 34-41.

Coppa, D. (2008). The internal process of therapeutic touch. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 26(1), 17-24.

Courcey, K. (1998). Therapeutic touch. A retrospective on therapeutic touch. Revolution, 8(3-4), 48-54.

Courcey, K. (2001). Investigating therapeutic touch. Nurse Practitioner, 26(11), 12-13.

Cox, C., & Hayes, J. (1998). Experiences of administering and receiving therapeutic touch in intensive care. Complementary Therapies in Nursing & Midwifery, 4(5), 128-132.

Cox, C., & Hayes, J. (1999). Physiologic and psychodynamic responses to the administration of therapeutic touch in critical care. Complementary Therapies in Nursing & Midwifery, 5(3), 87-92.

Cox, C. L., & Hayes, J. A. (1997). Reducing anxiety: the employment of Therapeutic Touch as a nursing intervention. Complementary Therapies in Nursing & Midwifery, 3(6), 163-167.

Cox, D. J., Singh, H., & Cox, D. M. (2011). Effectiveness of acupressure and acustimulation in minimizing driving simulation adaptation syndrome. Military Medicine, 176(12), 1440-1443.

Cox, T. (2003). A nurse-statistician reanalyzes data from the Rosa therapeutic touch study. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine, 9(1), 58-64.

Crawford, S. E., Leaver, V. W., & Mahoney, S. D. (2006). Using Reiki to decrease memory and behavior problems in mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer’s disease. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 12(9), 911-913.

Cugelman, A. (1998). Therapeutic touch: an extension of professional skills. CANNT Journal, 8(3), 30-32.

Cuneo, C. L., Curtis Cooper, M. R., Drew, C. S., Naoum-Heffernan, C., Sherman, T., Walz, K., & Weinberg, J. (2011). The effect of Reiki on work-related stress of the registered nurse. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 29(1), 33-43.

Curtis, P., Gaylord, S. A., Park, J., Faurot, K. R., Coble, R., Suchindran, C., . . . Mann, J. D. (2011). Credibility of low-strength static magnet therapy as an attention control intervention for a randomized controlled study of CranioSacral therapy for migraine headaches. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 17(8), 711-721.

Dalal, K., Devarajan, E., Pandey, R. M., Subbiah, V., & Tripathi, M. (2013). Role of reflexology and antiepileptic drugs in managing intractable epilepsy-a randomized controlled trial. Forsch Komplementmed, 20(2), 104-111. doi: 10.1159/000350047.

Daley, B. (1997). Therapeutic touch, nursing practice and contemporary cutaneous wound healing research. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 25(6), 1123-1132.

Dalglish, S. (1999). Therapeutic touch in an acute care community hospital. Canadian Nurse, 95(3), 57-58.

Danhauer, S. C., Tooze, J. A., Holder, P., Miller, C., & Jesse, M. T. (2008). Healing touch as a supportive intervention for adult acute leukemia patients: a pilot investigation of effects on distress and symptoms. Journal Of The Society For Integrative Oncology, 6(3), 89-97.

Darbandi, M., Darbandi, S., Mobarhan, M. G., Owji, A. A., Zhao, B., Iraji, K., . . . Mokarram, P. (2012). Effects of auricular acupressure combined with low-calorie diet on the leptin hormone in obese and overweight Iranian individuals. Acupuncture in Medicine, 30(3), 208-213.

Das, R., Nayak, B. S., & Margaret, B. (2011). Acupressure and physical stress among high school students. Holistic Nursing Practice, 25(2), 97-104.

Davies, E. (2000). My journey into the literature of Therapeutic Touch and Healing Touch: Part 1. Australian Journal of Holistic Nursing, 7(2), 20-28.

Davies, E. (2001). My journey into the literature of Therapeutic Touch and Healing Touch: Part 2. Australian Journal of Holistic Nursing, 8(1), 31-37.

Decker, S., Wardell, D. W., & Cron, S. G. (2012). Using a healing touch intervention in older adults with persistent pain: a feasibility study. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 30(3), 205-213.

Denison, B. (2004). Touch the pain away: new research on therapeutic touch and persons with fibromyalgia syndrome. Holistic Nursing Practice, 18(3), 142-151.

Diaz-Rodriguez, L., Arroyo-Morales, M., Cantarero-Villanueva, I., Fernandez-Lao, C., Polley, M., & Fernandez-de-las-Penas, C. (2011). The application of Reiki in nurses diagnosed with Burnout Syndrome has beneficial effects on concentration of salivary IgA and blood pressure. Revista Latino-Americana de Enfermagem, 19(5), 1132-1138.

Diaz-Rodriguez, L., Arroyo-Morales, M., Fernandez-de-las-Penas, C., Garcia-Lafuente, F., Garcia-Royo, C., & Tomas-Rojas, I. (2011). Immediate effects of reiki on heart rate variability, cortisol levels, and body temperature in health care professionals with burnout. Biological Research for Nursing, 13(4), 376-382.

Dibble, S. L., Luce, J., Cooper, B. A., Israel, J., Cohen, M., Nussey, B., & Rugo, H. (2007). Acupressure for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: a randomized clinical trial. Oncology Nursing Forum, 34(4), 813-820.

DiNucci, E. M. (2005). Energy healing: a complementary treatment for orthopaedic and other conditions. Orthopaedic Nursing, 24(4), 259-269.

Doherty, D., Wright, S., Aveyard, B., & Sykes, M. (2006). Therapeutic touch and dementia care: an ongoing journey. Nursing Older People, 18(11), 27-30.

Doran, K., & Halm, M. A. (2010). Integrating acupressure to alleviate postoperative nausea and vomiting. American Journal of Critical Care, 19(6), 553-556.

Dossey, L. (2003). Therapeutic touch at the crossroads: observations on the Rosa study. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine, 9(1), 38-39.

Dowd, T., Kolcaba, K., Steiner, R., & Fashinpaur, D. (2007). Comparison of a healing touch, coaching, and a combined intervention on comfort and stress in younger college students. Holistic Nursing Practice, 21(4), 194-202.

Dowling, J. S., & Bright, M. A. (1999). A collaborative research project on Therapeutic Touch. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 17(3), 296-307.

Downey, P. A., Barbano, T., Kapur-Wadhwa, R., Sciote, J. J., Siegel, M. I., & Mooney, M. P. (2006). Craniosacral therapy: the effects of cranial manipulation on intracranial pressure and cranial bone movement. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 36(11), 845-853.

DuBrey, R. J. (1996). Therapeutic touch: a healing intervention. Hospital uses complementary therapy to aid healing, relieve pain. Health Progress, 77(3), 46, 48.

Dullenkopf, A., Schmitz, A., Lamesic, G., Weiss, M., & Lang, A. (2004). The influence of acupressure on the monitoring of acoustic evoked potentials in unsedated adult volunteers. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 99(4), 1147-1151, table of contents.

Dune, L. (2006). Integrating tuina acupressure and traditional Chinese medicine concepts into a holistic nursing practice. Explore: The Journal of Science & Healing, 2(6), 543-546.

Dune, L. S., & Shiao, S. Y. (2006). Metaanalysis of acustimulation effects on postoperative nausea and vomiting in children. Explore: The Journal of Science & Healing, 2(4), 314-320.

Dyer, J., Thomas, K., Sandsund, C., & Shaw, C. (2013). Is reflexology as effective as aromatherapy massage for symptom relief in an adult outpatient oncology population? Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 19(3), 139-146.

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Jain, S., McMahon, G. F., Hasen, P., Kozub, M. P., Porter, V., King, R., & Guarneri, E. M. (2012). Healing Touch with Guided Imagery for PTSD in returning active duty military: a randomized controlled trial. Military Medicine, 177(9), 1015-1021.

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The following information is a brief rationale on the reasons for the exclusion of these modalities from our literature search. Keep in mind, we are comparing the core aspects of the practices of each modality. Our comparison is admittedly imperfect, and not intended to be a source of debate.

EFT – The core of EFT and its variants are a type of Energy Psychology, which is significantly different than EM and EEM. The primary mechanism for EFT is the use of tapping meridian points. There are no exercises to activate and balance subtle energy systems, or work with other subtle energy systems. There is no practitioner based hands on healing involved. In addition, an up-to-date research bibliography can be found at

Acupuncture – this modality works with the Meridians, a subtle energy system, and in some instances may utilize other energy systems that are engaged with Eden Energy Medicine (EEM; Radiant Circuits or the 5 Rhythms.) Yet the primary mechanism for stimulating these energies is the use of acupuncture needles. Typically these are placed in specified locations on the body, and then the practitioner leaves the client alone to let the needles stimulate their energies. This is a fundamentally different than the methodologies used in an EEM session, or when EEM is used for self-care, therefore we did not consider it significantly close in nature to EEM.

Traditional Massage – this modality uses techniques that are also found in EEM, although the emphasis in massage is to work with soft tissues, whereas in EEM it is to work with energy systems. Less frequently, or absent altogether, are there exercises or techniques used to directly stimulate subtle energies. More importantly, the typical rationale for the benefits of massage are explained via muscular skeletal alignment, or soft tissue release, and are not explained via the balancing of subtle energies.

Yoga – yoga is an ancient practice which has many different branches and expressions. In the US, emphasis is on the postural and breathing practices, which fall into the branch referred to as Hatha Yoga. There is some similarity between yoga postures and EEM Daily Energy Exercises or other EEM exercises. In fact some are very similar. However the execution of those practices are quite different than the use of EEM exercises of a private EEM session. Hatha Yoga is primarily a group based, teacher led experience, and there are not typically hands on based healing techniques as a core component of the major branches of Hatha yoga.