Energy Medicine Research References
This bibliography has been prepared by the Energy Medicine Research Network (EMRN) and is hosted by the National Institute for Integrative Healthcare (NIIH). A literature search was undertaken by Sandra Shipp, EEM-AP and Anne Rosebrook, MLP, and lists studies that have met the following criteria:
- They assess the use of hands-on healing or interventions within the body’s energy field;
- They use energetic exercises or techniques to balance the body’s energy systems;
- The explanation they use for the effects of treatment is based on changes to the body’s energy field.
The Energy Medicine Research Network describes the search criteria as follows:
In order to complete the literature search, Ovid/Medline and PubMed medical databases were searched using the following keywords: acupressure, “Barbara Brennan”, biofield, cranio-sacral therapy, “body talk,” “energy medicine,” “energy healing,” “healing touch,” johrei, “polarity therapy,” “pranic healing,” “quantum touch,” reflexology, reiki, shiatsu, “touch for health,” “touch therapy,” and the MESH controlled vocabulary term “therapeutic touch.” Search results were limited to English language and human subject research. The results were visually scanned to eliminate general overviews of a modality, letters to the Editor, interviews, or other non-research publications. A broad range of reports was still included, ranging from more case studies to sophisticated clinical trials to systematic reviews of previously published studies.
This articles selected according to the criteria outlined above are presented as an APA-formatted reference list. They have not been reviewed to assess a positive, negative, or neutral outcome of the research, research methodology, or quality of research. It is merely a list of articles meeting the stated criteria.
The literature search identified 600+ studies encompassing the following Energy Medicine modalities:
- Auricular Acupressure
- Brennan Healing Science
- Biofield Healing
- Body Talk
- Craniosacral therapy
- Healing Touch
- Polarity Therapy
- Pranic Healing
- Quantum Touch
- Therapeutic Touch
- Touch for Health
- Touch Therapy
Acupuncture, Distant Healing, EFT (Emotional Freedom Techniques), Energy Psychology, Massage, Prayer and Yoga are not included in this bibliography. The rationale for this exclusion can be found in an Appendix below the list of studies. Below are links to bibliographies for these modalities where available. The explanation of the process used to conduct the literature search, and full inclusion and exclusion criteria, is available in a PDF of the original list.
The original search was undertaken in May 2014 and the list is updated by EMRN volunteers periodically. If you’re aware of a study you feel should be included in the list, please read the full article first, and if you still feel the article should be included, please email email@example.com, and it will be considered for inclusion during the next update.
Additional reference lists on other subsets of Energy Medicine are available at the links below:
- Distant Healing
- EFT (Emotional Freedom Techniques)
- Energy Psychology
Many of the above bibliographies are not current; we would also appreciate links to up-to-date sources if you’re aware of them. Thanks for your support of energy medicine!
Energy Medicine Research Bibliography
Agarwal, A., Dhiraaj, S., Tandon, M., Singh, P. K., Singh, U., & Pawar, S. (2005). Evaluation of capsaicin ointment at the Korean hand acupressure point K-D2 for prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anaesthesia, 60(12), 1185-1188.
Agarwal, A., Ranjan, R., Dhiraaj, S., Lakra, A., Kumar, M., & Singh, U. (2005). Acupressure for prevention of pre-operative anxiety: a prospective, randomised, placebo controlled study. Anaesthesia, 60(10), 978-981.
Ai, A. L., Peterson, C., Gillespie, B., Bolling, S. F., Jessup, M. G., Behling, B. A., & Pierce, F. (2001). Designing clinical trials on energy healing: ancient art encounters medical science. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine, 7(4), 83-90.
Alessandrini, M., Napolitano, B., Micarelli, A., de Padova, A., & Bruno, E. (2012). P6 acupressure effectiveness on acute vertiginous patients: a double blind randomized study. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 18(12), 1121-1126.
Alkaissi, A., Ledin, T., Odkvist, L. M., & Kalman, S. (2005). P6 acupressure increases tolerance to nauseogenic motion stimulation in women at high risk for PONV. Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, 52(7), 703-709.
Allais, G., Rolando, S., Castagnoli Gabellari, I., Burzio, C., Airola, G., Borgogno, P., . . . Benedetto, C. (2012). Acupressure in the control of migraine-associated nausea. Neurological Sciences, 33 Suppl 1, S207-210.
Anonymous. (2005). Healing touch: hands-on help for the heart? Touch therapies are reaching growing numbers of patients. Harvard Heart Letter, 16(2), 3.
Arai, Y. C., Ushida, T., Osuga, T., Matsubara, T., Oshima, K., Kawaguchi, K., . . . Watakabe, K. (2008). The effect of acupressure at the extra 1 point on subjective and autonomic responses to needle insertion. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 107(2), 661-664.
Baldwin, A. L., Rand, W. L., & Schwartz, G. E. (2013). Practicing Reiki does not appear to routinely produce high-intensity electromagnetic fields from the heart or hands of Reiki practitioners. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 19(6), 518-526.
Baldwin, A. L., Vitale, A., Brownell, E., Scicinski, J., Kearns, M., & Rand, W. (2010). The Touchstone Process: an ongoing critical evaluation of reiki in the scientific literature. Holistic Nursing Practice, 24(5), 260-276.
Bao, T., Ye, X., Skinner, J., Cao, B., Fisher, J., Nesbit, S., & Grossman, S. A. (2011). The analgesic effect of magnetic acupressure in cancer patients undergoing bone marrow aspiration and biopsy: a randomized, blinded, controlled trial. Journal of Pain & Symptom Management, 41(6), 995-1002.
Barker, R., Kober, A., Hoerauf, K., Latzke, D., Adel, S., Kain, Z. N., & Wang, S. M. (2006). Out-of-hospital auricular acupressure in elder patients with hip fracture: a randomized double-blinded trial. Academic Emergency Medicine, 13(1), 19-23.
Bay, R., & Bay, F. (2011). Combined therapy using acupressure therapy, hypnotherapy, and transcendental meditation versus placebo in type 2 diabetes. Jams Journal of Acupuncture & Meridian Studies, 4(3), 183-186.
Bazarganipour, F., Lamyian, M., Heshmat, R., Abadi, M. A., & Taghavi, A. (2010). A randomized clinical trial of the efficacy of applying a simple acupressure protocol to the Taichong point in relieving dysmenorrhea. International Journal of Gynaecology & Obstetrics, 111(2), 105-109.
Beard, C., Stason, W. B., Wang, Q., Manola, J., Dean-Clower, E., Dusek, J. A., . . . Benson, H. (2011). Effects of complementary therapies on clinical outcomes in patients being treated with radiation therapy for prostate cancer. Cancer, 117(1), 96-102.
Berden, M., Jerman, I., & Skarja, M. (1997). A possible physical basis for the healing touch (biotherapy) evaluated by high voltage electrophotography. Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Research, 22(2), 127-146.
Bertalanffy, P., Hoerauf, K., Fleischhackl, R., Strasser, H., Wicke, F., Greher, M., . . . Kober, A. (2004). Korean hand acupressure for motion sickness in prehospital trauma care: a prospective, randomized, double-blinded trial in a geriatric population. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 98(1), 220-223, table of contents.
Birocco, N., Guillame, C., Storto, S., Ritorto, G., Catino, C., Gir, N., . . . Ciuffreda, L. (2012). The effects of Reiki therapy on pain and anxiety in patients attending a day oncology and infusion services unit. American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Medicine, 29(4), 290-294.
Bishop, F. L., Barlow, F., Walker, J., McDermott, C., & Lewith, G. T. (2010). The development and validation of an outcome measure for spiritual healing: a mixed methods study. Psychotherapy & Psychosomatics, 79(6), 350-362.
Blankfield, R. P., Sulzmann, C., Fradley, L. G., Tapolyai, A. A., & Zyzanski, S. J. (2001). Therapeutic touch in the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome. Journal of the American Board of Family Practice, 14(5), 335-342.
Bowden, D., Goddard, L., & Gruzelier, J. (2010). A randomised controlled single-blind trial of the effects of Reiki and positive imagery on well-being and salivary cortisol. Brain Research Bulletin, 81(1), 66-72.
Bradley, E., & Finlay, F. (2009). Towards evidence based medicine for paediatricians. Is cranio-sacral therapy useful in the management of crying babies? Archives of Disease in Childhood, 94(7), 555-556.
Bril, V., England, J. D., Franklin, G. M., Backonja, M., Cohen, J. A., Del Toro, D. R., . . . Rehabilitation. (2011). Evidence-based guideline: treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy-report of the American Association of Neuromuscular and Electrodiagnostic Medicine, the American Academy of Neurology, and the American Academy of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation. Muscle & Nerve, 43(6), 910-917.
Brooks, A. J., Schwartz, G. E., Reece, K., & Nangle, G. (2006). The effect of Johrei healing on substance abuse recovery: a pilot study. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 12(7), 625-631.
Brown, C. A., & Lido, C. (2008). Reflexology treatment for patients with lower limb amputations and phantom limb pain–an exploratory pilot study. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 14(2), 124-131.
Busch, M., Visser, A., Eybrechts, M., van Komen, R., Oen, I., Olff, M., . . . Boxma, H. (2012). The implementation and evaluation of therapeutic touch in burn patients: an instructive experience of conducting a scientific study within a non-academic nursing setting. Patient Education & Counseling, 89(3), 439-446.
Castro-Sanchez, A. M., Mataran-Penarrocha, G. A., Sanchez-Labraca, N., Quesada-Rubio, J. M., Granero-Molina, J., & Moreno-Lorenzo, C. (2011). A randomized controlled trial investigating the effects of craniosacral therapy on pain and heart rate variability in fibromyalgia patients. Clinical Rehabilitation, 25(1), 25-35.
Catlin, A., & Taylor-Ford, R. L. (2011). Investigation of standard care versus sham Reiki placebo versus actual Reiki therapy to enhance comfort and well-being in a chemotherapy infusion center. Oncology Nursing Forum, 38(3), E212-220.
Cerrone, R., Giani, L., Galbiati, B., Messina, G., Casiraghi, M., Proserpio, E., . . . Gardani, G. (2008). Efficacy of HT 7 point acupressure stimulation in the treatment of insomnia in cancer patients and in patients suffering from disorders other than cancer. Minerva Medica, 99(6), 535-537.
Chang, K. K., Wong, T. K., Wong, T. H., Leung, A. W., & Chung, J. W. (2011). Effect of acupressure in treating urodynamic stress incontinence: a randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Chinese Medicine, 39(6), 1139-1159.
Chao, H. L., Miao, S. J., Liu, P. F., Lee, H. H., Chen, Y. M., Yao, C. T., & Chou, H. L. (2013). The beneficial effect of ST-36 (Zusanli) acupressure on postoperative gastrointestinal function in patients with colorectal cancer. Oncology Nursing Forum, 40(2), E61-68.
Chen, H. H., Yeh, M. L., & Chao, Y. H. (2006). Comparing effects of auricular acupressure with and without an internet-assisted program on smoking cessation and self-efficacy of adolescents. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 12(2), 147-152.
Chen, H. M., Chang, F. Y., & Hsu, C. T. (2005). Effect of acupressure on nausea, vomiting, anxiety and pain among post-cesarean section women in Taiwan. Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences, 21(8), 341-350.
Chen, H. M., & Chen, C. H. (2010). Effects of acupressure on menstrual distress in adolescent girls: a comparison between Hegu-Sanyinjiao matched points and Hegu, Zusanli single point. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 19(7-8), 998-1007.
Chen, J. H., Chao, Y. H., Lu, S. F., Shiung, T. F., & Chao, Y. F. (2010). The effectiveness of valerian acupressure on the sleep of ICU patients: a randomized clinical trial. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 49(8), 913-920.
Chen, K. W., Berger, C. C., Gandhi, D., Weintraub, E., & Lejuez, C. W. (2013). Adding integrative meditation with ear acupressure to outpatient treatment of cocaine addiction: a randomized controlled pilot study. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 19(3), 204-210.
Chen, L. L., Su, Y. C., Su, C. H., Lin, H. C., & Kuo, H. W. (2008). Acupressure and meridian massage: combined effects on increasing body weight in premature infants.[Erratum appears in J Clin Nurs. 2008 Aug;17(15):2089]. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 17(9), 1174-1181.
Chung, Y. C., Chen, H. H., & Yeh, M. L. (2012). Acupoint stimulation intervention for people with primary dysmenorrhea: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 20(5), 353-363.
Collinge, W., Wentworth, R., & Sabo, S. (2005). Integrating complementary therapies into community mental health practice: an exploration. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 11(3), 569-574.
Collins, K. B., & Thomas, D. J. (2004). Acupuncture and acupressure for the management of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 16(2), 76-80.
Cook, C. A., Guerrerio, J. F., & Slater, V. E. (2004). Healing touch and quality of life in women receiving radiation treatment for cancer: a randomized controlled trial. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine, 10(3), 34-41.
Crawford, S. E., Leaver, V. W., & Mahoney, S. D. (2006). Using Reiki to decrease memory and behavior problems in mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer’s disease. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 12(9), 911-913.
Cuneo, C. L., Curtis Cooper, M. R., Drew, C. S., Naoum-Heffernan, C., Sherman, T., Walz, K., & Weinberg, J. (2011). The effect of Reiki on work-related stress of the registered nurse. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 29(1), 33-43.
Curtis, P., Gaylord, S. A., Park, J., Faurot, K. R., Coble, R., Suchindran, C., . . . Mann, J. D. (2011). Credibility of low-strength static magnet therapy as an attention control intervention for a randomized controlled study of CranioSacral therapy for migraine headaches. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 17(8), 711-721.
Dalal, K., Devarajan, E., Pandey, R. M., Subbiah, V., & Tripathi, M. (2013). Role of reflexology and antiepileptic drugs in managing intractable epilepsy-a randomized controlled trial. Forsch Komplementmed, 20(2), 104-111. doi: 10.1159/000350047.
Danhauer, S. C., Tooze, J. A., Holder, P., Miller, C., & Jesse, M. T. (2008). Healing touch as a supportive intervention for adult acute leukemia patients: a pilot investigation of effects on distress and symptoms. Journal Of The Society For Integrative Oncology, 6(3), 89-97.
Darbandi, M., Darbandi, S., Mobarhan, M. G., Owji, A. A., Zhao, B., Iraji, K., . . . Mokarram, P. (2012). Effects of auricular acupressure combined with low-calorie diet on the leptin hormone in obese and overweight Iranian individuals. Acupuncture in Medicine, 30(3), 208-213.
Diaz-Rodriguez, L., Arroyo-Morales, M., Cantarero-Villanueva, I., Fernandez-Lao, C., Polley, M., & Fernandez-de-las-Penas, C. (2011). The application of Reiki in nurses diagnosed with Burnout Syndrome has beneficial effects on concentration of salivary IgA and blood pressure. Revista Latino-Americana de Enfermagem, 19(5), 1132-1138.
Diaz-Rodriguez, L., Arroyo-Morales, M., Fernandez-de-las-Penas, C., Garcia-Lafuente, F., Garcia-Royo, C., & Tomas-Rojas, I. (2011). Immediate effects of reiki on heart rate variability, cortisol levels, and body temperature in health care professionals with burnout. Biological Research for Nursing, 13(4), 376-382.
Dibble, S. L., Luce, J., Cooper, B. A., Israel, J., Cohen, M., Nussey, B., & Rugo, H. (2007). Acupressure for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: a randomized clinical trial. Oncology Nursing Forum, 34(4), 813-820.
Dowd, T., Kolcaba, K., Steiner, R., & Fashinpaur, D. (2007). Comparison of a healing touch, coaching, and a combined intervention on comfort and stress in younger college students. Holistic Nursing Practice, 21(4), 194-202.
Downey, P. A., Barbano, T., Kapur-Wadhwa, R., Sciote, J. J., Siegel, M. I., & Mooney, M. P. (2006). Craniosacral therapy: the effects of cranial manipulation on intracranial pressure and cranial bone movement. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 36(11), 845-853.
Dullenkopf, A., Schmitz, A., Lamesic, G., Weiss, M., & Lang, A. (2004). The influence of acupressure on the monitoring of acoustic evoked potentials in unsedated adult volunteers. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 99(4), 1147-1151, table of contents.
Dyer, J., Thomas, K., Sandsund, C., & Shaw, C. (2013). Is reflexology as effective as aromatherapy massage for symptom relief in an adult outpatient oncology population? Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 19(3), 139-146.
Ebrahim Soltani, A., Mohammadinasab, H., Goudarzi, M., Arbabi, S., Mohtaram, R., Afkham, K., . . . Darabi, M. E. (2010). Acupressure using ondansetron versus metoclopramide on reduction of postoperative nausea and vomiting after strabismus surgery. Archives of Iranian Medicine, 13(4), 288-293.
Elden, H., Ostgaard, H. C., Glantz, A., Marciniak, P., Linner, A. C., & Olsen, M. F. (2013). Effects of craniosacral therapy as adjunct to standard treatment for pelvic girdle pain in pregnant women: a multicenter, single blind, randomized controlled trial. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 92(7), 775-782.
Elder, C., Gallison, C., Lindberg, N. M., DeBar, L., Funk, K., Ritenbaugh, C., & Stevens, V. J. (2010). Randomized trial of Tapas Acupressure Technique for weight loss maintenance: rationale and study design. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 16(6), 683-690.
Elder, C., Ritenbaugh, C., Mist, S., Aickin, M., Schneider, J., Zwickey, H., & Elmer, P. (2007). Randomized trial of two mind-body interventions for weight-loss maintenance. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 13(1), 67-78.
Elder, C. R., Gullion, C. M., Debar, L. L., Funk, K. L., Lindberg, N. M., Ritenbaugh, C., . . . Stevens, V. J. (2012). Randomized trial of Tapas Acupressure Technique for weight loss maintenance. BMC Complementary & Alternative Medicine, 12, 19.
Ezzo, J., Streitberger, K., & Schneider, A. (2006). Cochrane systematic reviews examine P6 acupuncture-point stimulation for nausea and vomiting. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 12(5), 489-495.
Ezzo, J., Vickers, A., Richardson, M. A., Allen, C., Dibble, S. L., Issell, B., . . . Zhang, G. (2005). Acupuncture-point stimulation for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 23(28), 7188-7198.
Ezzo, J. M., Richardson, M. A., Vickers, A., Allen, C., Dibble, S. L., Issell, B. F., . . . Zhang, G. (2006). Acupuncture-point stimulation for chemotherapy-induced nausea or vomiting. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews(2), CD002285.
Fassoulaki, A., Paraskeva, A., Kostopanagiotou, G., Tsakalozou, E., & Markantonis, S. (2007). Acupressure on the extra 1 acupoint: the effect on bispectral index, serum melatonin, plasma beta-endorphin, and stress. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 104(2), 312-317.
Forbes, M. A., Rust, R., & Becker, G. J. (2004). Surface electromyography apparatus as a measurement device for biofield research: results from a single case study. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 10(4), 617-626.
Frank, L. S., Frank, J. L., March, D., Makari-Judson, G., Barham, R. B., & Mertens, W. C. (2007). Does therapeutic touch ease the discomfort or distress of patients undergoing stereotactic core breast biopsy? A randomized clinical trial. Pain Medicine, 8(5), 419-424.
Friedman, R. S., Burg, M. M., Miles, P., Lee, F., & Lampert, R. (2010). Effects of Reiki on autonomic activity early after acute coronary syndrome. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 56(12), 995-996.
Gardani, G., Cerrone, R., Biella, C., Galbiati, G., Proserpio, E., Casiraghi, M., . . . Lissoni, P. (2007). A progress study of 100 cancer patients treated by acupressure for chemotherapy-induced vomiting after failure with the pharmacological approach. Minerva Medica, 98(6), 665-668.
Gardani, G., Cerrone, R., Biella, C., Mancini, L., Proserpio, E., Casiraghi, M., . . . Lissoni, P. (2006). Effect of acupressure on nausea and vomiting induced by chemotherapy in cancer patients. Minerva Medica, 97(5), 391-394.
Gasiorowska, A., Navarro-Rodriguez, T., Dickman, R., Wendel, C., Moty, B., Powers, J., . . . Fass, R. (2009). Clinical trial: the effect of Johrei on symptoms of patients with functional chest pain. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 29(1), 126-134.
Green, C., Martin, C. W., Bassett, K., & Kazanjian, A. (1999). A systematic review of craniosacral therapy: biological plausibility, assessment reliability and clinical effectiveness. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 7(4), 201-207.
Greenman, P. E., & McPartland, J. M. (1995). Cranial findings and iatrogenesis from craniosacral manipulation in patients with traumatic brain syndrome. Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, 95(3), 182-188; 191-182.
Gronowicz, G. A., Jhaveri, A., Clarke, L. W., Aronow, M. S., & Smith, T. H. (2008). Therapeutic touch stimulates the proliferation of human cells in culture. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 14(3), 233-239.
Gunnarsdottir, T. J., & Jonsdottir, H. (2007). Does the experimental design capture the effects of complementary therapy? A study using reflexology for patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 16(4), 777-785.
Habek, D., Barbir, A., Habek, J. C., Janculiak, D., & Bobic-Vukovic, M. (2004). Success of acupuncture and acupressure of the Pc 6 acupoint in the treatment of hyperemesis gravidarum. Forschende Komplementarmedizin und Klassische Naturheilkunde, 11(1), 20-23.
Hagemaster, J. (2000). Use of therapeutic touch in treatment of drug addictions. Holistic Nursing Practice, 14(3), 14-20. Hallett, A. (2004). Narratives of therapeutic touch. Nursing Standard, 19(1), 33-37.
Hammerschlag, R., Marx, B., Yamamoto, M., & Aickin, M. (2012). Non-touch biofield therapy: a systematic review of human randomized controlled trials reporting use of only non-physical contact treatment P02.42. BMC Complement Altern Med., 12((Suppl 1)), P98.
Harris, R. E., Jeter, J., Chan, P., Higgins, P., Kong, F. M., Fazel, R., . . . Gillespie, B. (2005). Using acupressure to modify alertness in the classroom: a single-blinded, randomized, cross-over trial. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 11(4), 673-679.
Heazell, A., Thorneycroft, J., Walton, V., & Etherington, I. (2006). Acupressure for the in-patient treatment of nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy: a randomized control trial. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, 194(3), 815-820.
Helmreich, R. J., Shiao, S. Y., & Dune, L. S. (2006). Meta-analysis of acustimulation effects on nausea and vomiting in pregnant women.[Erratum appears in Explore (NY). 2007 Mar-Apr;3(2):94]. Explore: The Journal of Science & Healing, 2(5), 412-421.
Her, J. S., Liu, P. L., Cheng, N. C., Hung, H. C., Huang, P. H., Chen, Y. L., . . . Chen, Y. H. (2010). Intraocular pressure-lowering effect of auricular acupressure in patients with glaucoma: a prospective, single-blinded, randomized controlled trial. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 16(11), 1177-1184.
Hjelmstedt, A., Shenoy, S. T., Stener-Victorin, E., Lekander, M., Bhat, M., Balakumaran, L., & Waldenstrom, U. (2010). Acupressure to reduce labor pain: a randomized controlled trial. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 89(11), 1453-1459.
Hoffman, M. J. (1998). Therapeutic touch is back. Caring, 17(4), 26-28, 30.
Holt, J., Lord, J., Acharya, U., White, A., O’Neill, N., Shaw, S., & Barton, A. (2009). The effectiveness of foot reflexology in inducing ovulation: a sham-controlled randomized trial. Fertility & Sterility, 91(6), 2514-2519.
Honda, N., Ohgi, S., Wada, N., Loo, K. K., Higashimoto, Y., & Fukuda, K. (2013). Effect of therapeutic touch on brain activation of preterm infants in response to sensory punctate stimulus: a near-infrared spectroscopy-based study. Archives of Disease in Childhood Fetal & Neonatal Edition, 98(3), F244-248.
Hsieh, C. H., Su, T. J., Fang, Y. W., & Chou, P. H. (2011). Effects of auricular acupressure on weight reduction and abdominal obesity in Asian young adults: a randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Chinese Medicine, 39(3), 433-440.
Hsieh, L. L., Kuo, C. H., Lee, L. H., Yen, A. M., Chien, K. L., & Chen, T. H. (2006). Treatment of low back pain by acupressure and physical therapy: randomised controlled trial. BMJ, 332(7543), 696-700.
Hsieh, L. L., Liou, H. H., Lee, L. H., Chen, T. H., & Yen, A. M. (2010). Effect of acupressure and trigger points in treating headache: a randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Chinese Medicine, 38(1), 1-14.
Hsiu, H., Hsu, W. C., Chen, B. H., & Hsu, C. L. (2010). Differences in the microcirculatory effects of local skin surface contact pressure stimulation between acupoints and nonacupoints: possible relevance to acupressure. Physiological Measurement, 31(6), 829-841.
Huff, M. B., McClanahan, K. K., & Omar, H. A. (2006). From healing the whole person: an argument for therapeutic touch as a complement to traditional medical practice. Thescientificworldjournal, 6, 2188-2195.
Hughes, C. M., Krirsnakriengkrai, S., Kumar, S., & McDonough, S. M. (2011). The effect of reflexology on the autonomic nervous system in healthy adults: a feasibility study. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine, 17(3), 32-37.
Hughes, C. M., McCullough, C. A., Bradbury, I., Boyde, C., Hume, D., Yuan, J., . . . McDonough, S. M. (2009). Acupuncture and reflexology for insomnia: a feasibility study. Acupuncture in Medicine, 27(4), 163-168.
Hughes, C. M., Smyth, S., & Lowe-Strong, A. S. (2009). Reflexology for the treatment of pain in people with multiple sclerosis: a double-blind randomised sham-controlled clinical trial. Multiple Sclerosis, 15(11), 1329-1338.
Jackson, E., Kelley, M., McNeil, P., Meyer, E., Schlegel, L., & Eaton, M. (2008). Does therapeutic touch help reduce pain and anxiety in patients with cancer? Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing, 12(1), 113-120.
Jain, S., McMahon, G. F., Hasen, P., Kozub, M. P., Porter, V., King, R., & Guarneri, E. M. (2012). Healing Touch with Guided Imagery for PTSD in returning active duty military: a randomized controlled trial. Military Medicine, 177(9), 1015-1021.
Jain, S., Pavlik, D., Distefan, J., Bruyere, R. L., Acer, J., Garcia, R., . . . Mills, P. J. (2012). Complementary medicine for fatigue and cortisol variability in breast cancer survivors: a randomized controlled trial. Cancer, 118(3), 777-787.
Jhaveri, A., Walsh, S. J., Wang, Y., McCarthy, M., & Gronowicz, G. (2008). Therapeutic touch affects DNA synthesis and mineralization of human osteoblasts in culture. Journal of Orthopaedic Research, 26(11), 1541-1546.
Jin, K. K., Chen, L., Pan, J. Y., Li, J. M., Wang, Y., & Wang, F. Y. (2009). Acupressure therapy inhibits the development of diabetic complications in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 15(9), 1027-1032.
Johnston, C., Campbell-Yeo, M., Rich, B., Whitley, J., Filion, F., Cogan, J., & Walker, C. D. (2013). Therapeutic touch is not therapeutic for procedural pain in very preterm neonates: a randomized trial. Clin J Pain, 29(9), 824-829. doi: 10.1097/AJP.0b013e3182757650.
Jones, E., Isom, S., Kemper, K. J., & McLean, T. W. (2008). Acupressure for chemotherapy-associated nausea and vomiting in children. Journal Of The Society For Integrative Oncology, 6(4), 141-145.
Jones, J., Thomson, P., Irvine, K., & Leslie, S. J. (2013). Is there a specific hemodynamic effect in reflexology? A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 19(4), 319-328.
Jones, J., Thomson, P., Lauder, W., Howie, K., & Leslie, S. J. (2012). Reflexology has an acute (immediate) haemodynamic effect in healthy volunteers: a double-blind randomised controlled trial. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 18(4), 204-211.
Jones, J., Thomson, P., Lauder, W., Howie, K., & Leslie, S. J. (2013). Reflexology has no immediate haemodynamic effect in patients with chronic heart failure: a double blind randomised controlled trial. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 19(3), 133-138.
Jun, E. M., Chang, S., Kang, D. H., & Kim, S. (2007). Effects of acupressure on dysmenorrhea and skin temperature changes in college students: a non-randomized controlled trial. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 44(6), 973-981.
Kashefi, F., Khajehei, M., Ashraf, A. R., & Jafari, P. (2011). The efficacy of acupressure at the Sanyinjiao point in the improvement of women’s general health. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 17(12), 1141-1147.
Kashefi, F., Ziyadlou, S., Khajehei, M., Ashraf, A. R., Fadaee, A. R., & Jafari, P. (2010). Effect of acupressure at the Sanyinjiao point on primary dysmenorrhea: a randomized controlled trial. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 16(4), 198-202.
Kemper, K. J., Fletcher, N. B., Hamilton, C. A., & McLean, T. W. (2009). Impact of healing touch on pediatric oncology outpatients: pilot study. Journal Of The Society For Integrative Oncology, 7(1), 12-18.
Kilic Akca, N., Tasci, S., & Karatas, N. (2013). Effect of acupressure on patients in Turkey receiving hemodialysis treatment for uremic pruritus. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine, 19(5), 12-18.
Kim, K. H., Lee, M. S., Kang, K. W., & Choi, S. M. (2010). Role of acupressure in symptom management in patients with end-stage renal disease: a systematic review. Journal of Palliative Medicine, 13(7), 885-892.
Klaiman, P., Sternfeld, M., Deeb, Z., Roth, Y., Golan, A., Ezri, T., & Azamfirei, L. (2008). Magnetic acupressure for management of postoperative nausea and vomiting: a preliminary study. Minerva Anestesiologica, 74(11), 635-642.
Klein, A. A., Djaiani, G., Karski, J., Carroll, J., Karkouti, K., McCluskey, S., . . . Cheng, D. (2004). Acupressure wristbands for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in adults undergoing cardiac surgery. Journal of Cardiothoracic & Vascular Anesthesia, 18(1), 68-71.
Kohara, H., Miyauchi, T., Suehiro, Y., Ueoka, H., Takeyama, H., & Morita, T. (2004). Combined modality treatment of aromatherapy, footsoak, and reflexology relieves fatigue in patients with cancer. Journal of Palliative Medicine, 7(6), 791-796.
Korn, L., Logsdon, R. G., Polissar, N. L., Gomez-Beloz, A., Waters, T., & Ryser, R. (2009). A randomized trial of a CAM therapy for stress reduction in American Indian and Alaskan Native family caregivers. Gerontologist, 49(3), 368-377.
Korotkov, K., Shelkov, O., Shevtsov, A., Mohov, D., Paoletti, S., Mirosnichenko, D., . . . Robertson, L. (2012). Stress reduction with osteopathy assessed with GDV electrophotonic imaging: effects of osteopathy treatment. [Erratum appears in J Altern Complement Med. 2012 Sep;18(9):887]. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 18(3), 251-257.
Kotora, J. (1997). Therapeutic touch can augment traditional therapies. Oncology Nursing Forum, 24(8), 1329-1330.
Kramer, N. A. (1990). Comparison of therapeutic touch and casual touch in stress reduction of hospitalized children. Pediatric Nursing, 16(5), 483-485.
Krug, P., Kramer, D., Bukatman, R., Gordon, P., & Mermelstein, P. (2013). Energy dialogue technique in healing and health: relieving side effects and thyroid dysfunction in a male with hemophilia receiving pegylated interferon and ribavirin treatment for hepatitis C virus-an anecdotal case study. J Holist Nurs, 31(3), 204-213. doi: 10.1177/0898010113488992.
Kundu, A., Dolan-Oves, R., Dimmers, M. A., Towle, C. B., & Doorenbos, A. Z. (2013). Reiki training for caregivers of hospitalized pediatric patients: a pilot program. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 19(1), 50-54.
Kung, Y. Y., Yang, C. C., Chiu, J. H., & Kuo, T. B. (2011). The relationship of subjective sleep quality and cardiac autonomic nervous system in postmenopausal women with insomnia under auricular acupressure. Menopause, 18(6), 638-645.
Lafreniere, K. D., Mutus, B., Cameron, S., Tannous, M., Giannotti, M., Abu-Zahra, H., & Laukkanen, E. (1999). Effects of therapeutic touch on biochemical and mood indicators in women. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 5(4), 367-370.
Laidlaw, T. M., Naito, A., Dwivedi, P., Hansi, N. K., Henderson, D. C., & Gruzelier, J. H. (2006). The influence of 10 min of the Johrei healing method on laboratory stress. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 14(2), 127-132.
Lang, T., Hager, H., Funovits, V., Barker, R., Steinlechner, B., Hoerauf, K., & Kober, A. (2007). Prehospital analgesia with acupressure at the Baihui and Hegu points in patients with radial fractures: a prospective, randomized, double-blind trial. American Journal of Emergency Medicine, 25(8), 887-893.
Lee, H. Y., Hale, C. A., Hemingway, B., & Woolridge, M. W. (2012). Tai Chi exercise and auricular acupressure for people with rheumatoid arthritis: an evaluation study. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 21(19-20), 2812-2822.
Lee, J., Dibble, S., Dodd, M., Abrams, D., & Burns, B. (2010). The relationship of chemotherapy-induced nausea to the frequency of pericardium 6 digital acupressure. Oncology Nursing Forum, 37(6), E419-425.
Lee, J., Han, M., Chung, Y., Kim, J., & Choi, J. (2011). Effects of foot reflexology on fatigue, sleep and pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing, 41(6), 821-833.
Lee, K. C., Keyes, A., Hensley, J. R., Gordon, J. R., Kwasny, M. J., West, D. P., & Lio, P. A. (2012). Effectiveness of acupressure on pruritus and lichenification associated with atopic dermatitis: a pilot trial. Acupuncture in Medicine, 30(1), 8-11.
Lee, M. K., Chang, S. B., & Kang, D. H. (2004). Effects of SP6 acupressure on labor pain and length of delivery time in women during labor. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 10(6), 959-965.
Li, C. Y., Chen, S. C., Gau, M. L., & Huang, C. M. (2011). Randomised controlled trial of the effectiveness of using foot reflexology to improve quality of sleep amongst Taiwanese postpartum women. Midwifery, 27(2), 181-186.
Li, X., Hirokawa, M., Inoue, Y., Sugano, N., Qian, S., & Iwai, T. (2007). Effects of acupressure on lower limb blood flow for the treatment of peripheral arterial occlusive diseases. Surgery Today, 37(2), 103-108.
Liang, C. K., Ho, T. Y., Li, T. C., Hsu, W. M., Li, T. M., Lee, Y. C., . . . Chang, S. L. (2008). A combined therapy using stimulating auricular acupoints enhances lower-level atropine eyedrops when used for myopia control in school-aged children evaluated by a pilot randomized controlled clinical trial. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 16(6), 305-310.
Lichtenberg, P., Vass, A., Ptaya, H., Edelman, S., & Heresco-Levy, U. (2009). Shiatsu as an adjuvant therapy for schizophrenia: an open-label pilot study. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine, 15(5), 44-46.
Lin, J. A., Wong, C. S., Lee, M. S., Ko, S. C., Chan, S. M., Chen, J. J., & Chen, T. L. (2010). Successful treatment of primary dysmenorrhea by collateral meridian acupressure therapy. Journal of Manipulative & Physiological Therapeutics, 33(1), 70-75.
Lin, L. C., Yang, M. H., Kao, C. C., Wu, S. C., Tang, S. H., & Lin, J. G. (2009). Using acupressure and Montessori-based activities to decrease agitation for residents with dementia: a cross-over trial. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 57(6), 1022-1029.
Liodden, I., Howley, M., Grimsgaard, A. S., Fonnebo, V. M., Borud, E. K., Alraek, T., & Norheim, A. J. (2011). Perioperative acupuncture and postoperative acupressure can prevent postoperative vomiting following paediatric tonsillectomy or adenoidectomy: a pragmatic randomised controlled trial. Acupuncture in Medicine, 29(1), 9-15.
Liu, C. F., Yu, L. F., Lin, C. H., & Lin, S. C. (2008). Effect of auricular pellet acupressure on antioxidative systems in high-risk diabetes mellitus. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 14(3), 303-307.
Long, A. F. (2008). The effectiveness of shiatsu: findings from a cross-European, prospective observational study.[Erratum appears in J Altern Complement Med. 2008 Nov;14(9):1175]. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 14(8), 921-930.
Long, A. F. (2009). The potential of complementary and alternative medicine in promoting well-being and critical health literacy: a prospective, observational study of shiatsu. BMC Complementary & Alternative Medicine, 9, 19.
Lu, W. A., Chen, G. Y., & Kuo, C. D. (2011). Foot reflexology can increase vagal modulation, decrease sympathetic modulation, and lower blood pressure in healthy subjects and patients with coronary artery disease. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine, 17(4), 8-14.
Luskin, F. M., Newell, K. A., Griffith, M., Holmes, M., Telles, S., DiNucci, E., . . . Haskell, W. L. (2000). A review of mind/body therapies in the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders with implications for the elderly. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine, 6(2), 46-56.
Lutgendorf, S. K., Mullen-Houser, E., Russell, D., Degeest, K., Jacobson, G., Hart, L., . . . Lubaroff, D. M. (2010). Preservation of immune function in cervical cancer patients during chemoradiation using a novel integrative approach. Brain, Behavior, & Immunity, 24(8), 1231-1240.
Maa, S. H., Tsou, T. S., Wang, K. Y., Wang, C. H., Lin, H. C., & Huang, Y. H. (2007). Self-administered acupressure reduces the symptoms that limit daily activities in bronchiectasis patients: pilot study findings. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 16(4), 794-804.
MacIntyre, B., Hamilton, J., Fricke, T., Ma, W., Mehle, S., & Michel, M. (2008). The efficacy of healing touch in coronary artery bypass surgery recovery: a randomized clinical trial. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine, 14(4), 24-32.
Mackereth, P. A., Booth, K., Hillier, V. F., & Caress, A. L. (2009). Reflexology and progressive muscle relaxation training for people with multiple sclerosis: a crossover trial. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 15(1), 14-21.
Madrid, M. M., Barrett, E. A., & Winstead-Fry, P. (2010). A study of the feasibility of introducing therapeutic touch into the operative environment with patients undergoing cerebral angiography. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 28(3), 168-174.
Mak, H. L., Cheon, W. C., Wong, T., Liu, Y. S., & Tong, W. M. (2007). Randomized controlled trial of foot reflexology for patients with symptomatic idiopathic detrusor overactivity. International Urogynecology Journal, 18(6), 653-658.
Mann, J. D., Faurot, K. R., Wilkinson, L., Curtis, P., Coeytaux, R. R., Suchindran, C., & Gaylord, S. A. (2008). Craniosacral therapy for migraine: protocol development for an exploratory controlled clinical trial. BMC Complementary & Alternative Medicine, 8, 28.
Mansour, A. A., Beuche, M., Laing, G., Leis, A., & Nurse, J. (1999). A study to test the effectiveness of placebo Reiki standardization procedures developed for a planned Reiki efficacy study. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 5(2), 153-164.
Marcus, D. A., Blazek-O’Neill, B., & Kopar, J. L. (2013). Symptomatic improvement reported after receiving Reiki at a cancer infusion center. Am J Hosp Palliat Care, 30(2), 216-217. doi: 10.1177/1049909112469275.
Markose, M. T., Ramanathan, K., & Vijayakumar, J. (2004). Reduction of nausea, vomiting, and dry retches with P6 acupressure during pregnancy. International Journal of Gynaecology & Obstetrics, 85(2), 168-169.
McFadden, K. L., Healy, K. M., Dettmann, M. L., Kaye, J. T., Ito, T. A., & Hernandez, T. D. (2011). Acupressure as a non-pharmacological intervention for traumatic brain injury (TBI). Journal of Neurotrauma, 28(1), 21-34.
McNeill, J. A., Alderdice, F. A., & McMurray, F. (2006). A retrospective cohort study exploring the relationship between antenatal reflexology and intranatal outcomes. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 12(2), 119-125.
McVicar, A. J., Greenwood, C. R., Fewell, F., D’Arcy, V., Chandrasekharan, S., & Alldridge, L. C. (2007). Evaluation of anxiety, salivary cortisol and melatonin secretion following reflexology treatment: a pilot study in healthy individuals. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 13(3), 137-145.
Mehl-Madrona, L., Kligler, B., Silverman, S., Lynton, H., & Merrell, W. (2007). The impact of acupuncture and craniosacral therapy interventions on clinical outcomes in adults with asthma. Explore: The Journal of Science & Healing, 3(1), 28-36.
Melchart, D., Ihbe-Heffinger, A., Leps, B., von Schilling, C., & Linde, K. (2006). Acupuncture and acupressure for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea–a randomised cross-over pilot study. Supportive Care in Cancer, 14(8), 878-882.
Miles, P. (2005). If there is any significant experience with using Reiki in the hospital or ER setting and if there is any literature to support this use? Explore: The Journal of Science & Healing, 1(5), 414.
Miller, L., McIntee, E., & Mattison, P. (2013). Evaluation of the effects of reflexology on quality of life and symptomatic relief in multiple sclerosis patients with moderate to severe disability; a pilot study. Clin Rehabil, 27(7), 591-598. doi: 10.1177/0269215512469383 .
Mirbagher-Ajorpaz, N., Adib-Hajbaghery, M., & Mosaebi, F. (2011). The effects of acupressure on primary dysmenorrhea: a randomized controlled trial. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 17(1), 33-36.
Miura, N., Akitsuki, Y., Sekiguchi, A., & Kawashima, R. (2013). Activity in the primary somatosensory cortex induced by reflexological stimulation is unaffected by pseudo-information: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study. BMC Complementary & Alternative Medicine, 13, 114.
Molassiotis, A., Helin, A. M., Dabbour, R., & Hummerston, S. (2007). The effects of P6 acupressure in the prophylaxis of chemotherapy-related nausea and vomiting in breast cancer patients. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 15(1), 3-12.
Molassiotis, A., Sylt, P., & Diggins, H. (2007). The management of cancer-related fatigue after chemotherapy with acupuncture and acupressure: a randomised controlled trial. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 15(4), 228-237.
Mollart, L. (2003). Single-blind trial addressing the differential effects of two reflexology techniques versus rest, on ankle and foot oedema in late pregnancy. Complementary Therapies in Nursing & Midwifery, 9(4), 203-208.
Monzillo, E., & Gronowicz, G. (2011). New insights on therapeutic touch: a discussion of experimental methodology and design that resulted in significant effects on normal human cells and osteosarcoma. Explore: The Journal of Science & Healing, 7(1), 44-51.
Moore, T., Ting, B., & Rossiter-Thornton, M. (2008). A pilot study of the experience of participating in a Therapeutic Touch practice group. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 26(3), 161-168; discussion 169-172.
Mora, B., Iannuzzi, M., Lang, T., Steinlechner, B., Barker, R., Dobrovits, M., . . . Kober, A. (2007). Auricular acupressure as a treatment for anxiety before extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in the elderly. Journal of Urology, 178(1), 160-164; discussion 164.
Morse, M. L., & Beem, L. W. (2011). Benefits of Reiki therapy for a severely neutropenic patient with associated influences on a true random number generator. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 17(12), 1181-1190.
Muliira, J. K., & Muliira, R. S. (2013). Teaching culturally appropriate therapeutic touch to nursing students in the Sultanate of Oman: reflections on observations and experiences with Muslim patients. Holistic Nursing Practice, 27(1), 45-48.
Mustian, K. M., Roscoe, J. A., Palesh, O. G., Sprod, L. K., Heckler, C. E., Peppone, L. J., . . . Morrow, G. R. (2011). Polarity Therapy for cancer-related fatigue in patients with breast cancer receiving radiation therapy: a randomized controlled pilot study. Integrative Cancer Therapies, 10(1), 27-37.
Naito, A., Laidlaw, T. M., Henderson, D. C., Farahani, L., Dwivedi, P., & Gruzelier, J. H. (2003). The impact of self-hypnosis and Johrei on lymphocyte subpopulations at exam time: a controlled study. Brain Research Bulletin, 62(3), 241-253.
Nakamaru, T., Miura, N., Fukushima, A., & Kawashima, R. (2008). Somatotopical relationships between cortical activity and reflex areas in reflexology: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Neuroscience Letters, 448(1), 6-9.
Noroozinia, H., Mahoori, A., Hasani, E., Gerami-Fahim, M., & Sepehrvand, N. (2013). The effect of acupressure on nausea and vomiting after cesarean section under spinal anesthesia. Acta Medica Iranica, 51(3), 163-167.
Nourbakhsh, M. R., & Fearon, F. J. (2008). The effect of oscillating-energy manual therapy on lateral epicondylitis: a randomized, placebo-control, double-blinded study. Journal of Hand Therapy, 21(1), 4-13; quiz 14.
Nunley, C., Wakim, J., & Guinn, C. (2008). The effects of stimulation of acupressure point p6 on postoperative nausea and vomiting: a review of literature. Journal of PeriAnesthesia Nursing, 23(4), 247-261.
Otter, S., Church, A., Murray, A., Lucas, J., Creasey, N., Woodhouse, J., . . . Cooper, H. (2010). The effects of reflexology in reducing the symptoms of fatigue in people with rheumatoid arthritis: a preliminary study. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 16(12), 1251-1252.
Peters, R. M. (1999). The effectiveness of therapeutic touch: a meta-analytic review. Nursing Science Quarterly, 12(1), 52-61. Pierce, B. (2007). The use of biofield therapies in cancer care. Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing, 11(2), 253-258.
Puangsricharern, A., & Mahasukhon, S. (2008). Effectiveness of auricular acupressure in the treatment of nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, 91(11), 1633-1638.
Quattrin, R., Zanini, A., Buchini, S., Turello, D., Annunziata, M. A., Vidotti, C., . . . Brusaferro, S. (2006). Use of reflexology foot massage to reduce anxiety in hospitalized cancer patients in chemotherapy treatment: methodology and outcomes. Journal of Nursing Management, 14(2), 96-105.
Rahbar, M. H., Wyatt, G., Sikorskii, A., Victorson, D., & Ardjomand-Hessabi, M. (2011). Coordination and management of multisite complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies: experience from a multisite reflexology intervention trial. Contemporary Clinical Trials, 32(5), 620-629.
Raingruber, B., & Robinson, C. (2007). The effectiveness of Tai Chi, yoga, meditation, and Reiki healing sessions in promoting health and enhancing problem solving abilities of registered nurses. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 28(10), 1141-1155.
Raviv, G., Shefi, S., Nizani, D., & Achiron, A. (2009). Effect of craniosacral therapy on lower urinary tract signs and symptoms in multiple sclerosis. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 15(2), 72-75.
Reece, K., Schwartz, G. E., Brooks, A. J., & Nangle, G. (2005). Positive well-being changes associated with giving and receiving Johrei healing. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 11(3), 455-457.
Ren, K., Qiu, J., Wang, X., Niu, F., & Jiang, T. (2012). The effect of a sweet potato, footbath, and acupressure intervention in preventing constipation in hospitalized patients with acute coronary syndromes. Gastroenterology Nursing, 35(4), 271-277.
Rerksuppaphol, L. (2012). Efficacy of auricular acupressure combined with transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation for weight reduction in obese women. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, 95 Suppl 12, S32-39.
Reza, H., Kian, N., Pouresmail, Z., Masood, K., Sadat Seyed Bagher, M., & Cheraghi, M. A. (2010). The effect of acupressure on quality of sleep in Iranian elderly nursing home residents. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 16(2), 81-85.
Richeson, N. E., Spross, J. A., Lutz, K., & Peng, C. (2010). Effects of Reiki on anxiety, depression, pain, and physiological factors in community-dwelling older adults. Research in Gerontological Nursing, 3(3), 187-199.
Roscoe, J. A., Bushunow, P., Jean-Pierre, P., Heckler, C. E., Purnell, J. Q., Peppone, L. J., . . . Morrow, G. R. (2009). Acupressure bands are effective in reducing radiation therapy-related nausea. Journal of Pain & Symptom Management, 38(3), 381-389.
Roscoe, J. A., Jean-Pierre, P., Morrow, G. R., Hickok, J. T., Issell, B., Wade, J. L., & King, D. K. (2006). Exploratory analysis of the usefulness of acupressure bands when severe chemotherapy-related nausea is expected. Journal Of The Society For Integrative Oncology, 4(1), 16-20.
Roscoe, J. A., Matteson, S. E., Mustian, K. M., Padmanaban, D., & Morrow, G. R. (2005). Treatment of radiotherapy-induced fatigue through a nonpharmacological approach. Integrative Cancer Therapies, 4(1), 8-13.
Roscoe, J. A., O’Neill, M., Jean-Pierre, P., Heckler, C. E., Kaptchuk, T. J., Bushunow, P., . . . Smith, B. (2010). An exploratory study on the effects of an expectancy manipulation on chemotherapy-related nausea. Journal of Pain & Symptom Management, 40(3), 379-390.
Ross, C. S., Hamilton, J., Macrae, G., Docherty, C., Gould, A., & Cornbleet, M. A. (2002). A pilot study to evaluate the effect of reflexology on mood and symptom rating of advanced cancer patients. Palliative Medicine, 16(6), 544-545.
Rueda, J. R., Sola, I., Pascual, A., & Subirana Casacuberta, M. (2011). Non-invasive interventions for improving well-being and quality of life in patients with lung cancer. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews(9), CD004282.
Samarel, N., Fawcett, J., Davis, M. M., & Ryan, F. M. (1998). Effects of dialogue and therapeutic touch on preoperative and postoperative experiences of breast cancer surgery: an exploratory study. Oncology Nursing Forum, 25(8), 1369-1376.
Samuel, C. A., & Ebenezer, I. S. (2013). Exploratory study on the efficacy of reflexology for pain threshold and tolerance using an ice-pain experiment and sham TENS control. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 19(2), 57-62.
Schwartz, G. E., Swanick, S., Sibert, W., Lewis, D. A., Lewis, S. E., Nelson, L., . . . Bell, I. R. (2004). Biofield detection: role of bioenergy awareness training and individual differences in absorption. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 10(1), 167-169.
Sharp, D. M., Walker, M. B., Chaturvedi, A., Upadhyay, S., Hamid, A., Walker, A. A., . . . Walker, L. G. (2010). A randomised, controlled trial of the psychological effects of reflexology in early breast cancer. European Journal of Cancer, 46(2), 312-322.
Shiao, S. Y., & Dibble, S. L. (2006). Metaanalyses of acustimulation effects on nausea and vomiting across different patient populations: a brief overview of existing evidence. Explore: The Journal of Science & Healing, 2(3), 200-201.
Shiflett, S. C., Nayak, S., Bid, C., Miles, P., & Agostinelli, S. (2002). Effect of Reiki treatments on functional recovery in patients in poststroke rehabilitation: a pilot study. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 8(6), 755-763.
Shin, B. C., & Lee, M. S. (2007). Effects of aromatherapy acupressure on hemiplegic shoulder pain and motor power in stroke patients: a pilot study. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 13(2), 247-251.
Shin, Y. H., Kim, T. I., Shin, M. S., & Juon, H. S. (2004). Effect of acupressure on nausea and vomiting during chemotherapy cycle for Korean postoperative stomach cancer patients. Cancer Nursing, 27(4), 267-274.
Shore, A. G. (2004). Long-term effects of energetic healing on symptoms of psychological depression and self-perceived stress.[Erratum appears in Altern Ther Health Med. 2004 Jul-Aug;10(4):14]. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine, 10(3), 42-48.
Sikorskii, A., Wyatt, G., Victorson, D., Faulkner, G., & Rahbar, M. H. (2009). Methodological issues in trials of complementary and alternative medicine interventions. Nursing Research, 58(6), 444-451.
Sinha, A., Paech, M. J., Thew, M. E., Rhodes, M., Luscombe, K., & Nathan, E. (2011). A randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study of acupressure wristbands for the prevention of nausea and vomiting during labour and delivery. International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia, 20(2), 110-117.
Smith, D. W., Arnstein, P., Rosa, K. C., & Wells-Federman, C. (2002). Effects of integrating therapeutic touch into a cognitive behavioral pain treatment program. Report of a pilot clinical trial. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 20(4), 367-387.
Sneed, N. V., Olson, M., Bubolz, B., & Finch, N. (2001). Influences of a relaxation intervention on perceived stress and power spectral analysis of heart rate variability. Progress in Cardiovascular Nursing, 16(2), 57-64, 79.
Stephen, J. E., Mackenzie, G., Sample, S., & Macdonald, J. (2007). Twenty years of therapeutic touch in a Canadian cancer agency: lessons learned from a case study of integrative oncology practice. Supportive Care in Cancer, 15(8), 993-998.
Streitberger, K., & Kranke, P. (2011). Evidence for the efficacy of acupressure for preventing post-operative nausea and vomiting: an ongoing debate. European Journal of Anaesthesiology, 28(6), 396-398.
Sugiura, T., Horiguchi, H., Sugahara, K., Takeda, C., Samejima, M., Fujii, A., & Okita, Y. (2007). Heart rate and electroencephalogram changes caused by finger acupressure on planta pedis. Journal of Physiological Anthropology, 26(2), 257-259.
Sun, J. L., Sung, M. S., Huang, M. Y., Cheng, G. C., & Lin, C. C. (2010). Effectiveness of acupressure for residents of long-term care facilities with insomnia: a randomized controlled trial. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 47(7), 798-805.
Sutherland, E. G., Ritenbaugh, C., Kiley, S. J., Vuckovic, N., & Elder, C. (2009). An HMO-based prospective pilot study of energy medicine for chronic headaches: whole-person outcomes point to the need for new instrumentation. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 15(8), 819-826.
Suzuki, K., Uchida, S., Kimura, T., & Katamura, H. (2012). A large cross-sectional, descriptive study of self-reports after biofield therapy in Japan: demography, symptomology, and circumstances of treatment administration. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine, 18(4), 38-50.
Tang, R., Tegeler, C., Larrimore, D., Cowgill, S., & Kemper, K. J. (2010). Improving the well-being of nursing leaders through healing touch training. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 16(8), 837-841.
Tarantino, B., Earley, M., Audia, D., D’Adamo, C., & Berman, B. (2013). Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of a pilot integrative coping and resiliency program for healthcare professionals. Explore: The Journal of Science & Healing, 9(1), 44-47.
Taylor, B., & Lo, R. (2001). The effects of Healing Touch on the coping ability, self esteem and general health of undergraduate nursing students.[Erratum appears in Complement Ther Nurs Midwifery 2001 May;7(2):122]. Complementary Therapies in Nursing & Midwifery, 7(1), 34-42.
Tsay, S. L., Cho, Y. C., & Chen, M. L. (2004). Acupressure and Transcutaneous Electrical Acupoint Stimulation in improving fatigue, sleep quality and depression in hemodialysis patients. American Journal of Chinese Medicine, 32(3), 407-416.
Turgut, S., Ozalp, G., Dikmen, S., Savli, S., Tuncel, G., & Kadiogullari, N. (2007). Acupressure for postoperative nausea and vomiting in gynaecological patients receiving patient-controlled analgesia. European Journal of Anaesthesiology, 24(1), 87-91.
Vachiramon, A., & Wang, W. C. (2005). Acupuncture and acupressure techniques for reducing orthodontic post-adjustment pain. Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice [Electronic Resource], 6(1), 163-167.
Valiee, S., Bassampour, S. S., Nasrabadi, A. N., Pouresmaeil, Z., & Mehran, A. (2012). Effect of acupressure on preoperative anxiety: a clinical trial. Journal of PeriAnesthesia Nursing, 27(4), 259-266.
Van Aken, R., & Taylor, B. (2010). Emerging from depression: the experiential process of Healing Touch explored through grounded theory and case study. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 16(3), 132-137.
Ventegodt, S., Merrick, J., Andersen, N. J., & Bendix, T. (2004). A combination of gestalt therapy, Rosen Body Work, and Cranio Sacral therapy did not help in chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WAD)-results of a randomized clinical trial. Thescientificworldjournal, 4, 1055-1068.
Vitale, A. T., & O’Connor, P. C. (2006). The effect of Reiki on pain and anxiety in women with abdominal hysterectomies: a quasi-experimental pilot study. Holistic Nursing Practice, 20(6), 263-272; quiz
Wang, M. C., Hsu, M. C., Chien, L. W., Kao, C. H., & Liu, C. F. (2009). Effects of auricular acupressure on menstrual symptoms and nitric oxide for women with primary dysmenorrhea. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 15(3), 235-242.
Wang, S. M., Gaal, D., Maranets, I., Caldwell-Andrews, A., & Kain, Z. N. (2005). Acupressure and preoperative parental anxiety: a pilot study. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 101(3), 666-669, table of contents.
Wang, Y. Z., Chen, H. H., Yeh, M. L., & Lin, S. D. (2010). Auricular acupressure combined with multimedia instruction or alone for quitting smoking in young adults: A quasi-experimental study. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 47(9), 1089-1095.
Warber, S. L., Gordon, A., Gillespie, B. W., Olson, M., & Assefi, N. (2003). Standards for conducting clinical biofield energy healing research. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine, 9(3 Suppl), A54-64.
Wardell, D. W., Rintala, D., & Tan, G. (2008). Study descriptions of healing touch with veterans experiencing chronic neuropathic pain from spinal cord injury. Explore: The Journal of Science & Healing, 4(3), 187-195.
Wardell, D. W., Rintala, D. H., Duan, Z., & Tan, G. (2006). A pilot study of healing touch and progressive relaxation for chronic neuropathic pain in persons with spinal cord injury. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 24(4), 231-240; discussion 241-234.
White, P. F., Zhao, M., Tang, J., Wender, R. H., Yumul, R., Sloninsky, A. V., . . . Cunneen, S. (2012). Use of a disposable acupressure device as part of a multimodal antiemetic strategy for reducing postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 115(1), 31-37.
Whitley, J. A., & Rich, B. L. (2008). A double-blind randomized controlled pilot trial examining the safety and efficacy of therapeutic touch in premature infants. Advances in Neonatal Care, 8(6), 315-333.
Wilkinson, D. S., Knox, P. L., Chatman, J. E., Johnson, T. L., Barbour, N., Myles, Y., & Reel, A. (2002). The clinical effectiveness of healing touch. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 8(1), 33-47.
Wilkinson, I. S., Prigmore, S., & Rayner, C. F. (2006). A randomised-controlled trail examining the effects of reflexology of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 12(2), 141-147.
Williams, A. M., Davies, A., & Griffiths, G. (2009). Facilitating comfort for hospitalized patients using non-pharmacological measures: preliminary development of clinical practice guidelines. International Journal of Nursing Practice, 15(3), 145-155.
Williamson, J., White, A., Hart, A., & Ernst, E. (2002). Randomised controlled trial of reflexology for menopausal symptoms. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 109(9), 1050-1055.
Witzel, T., Napadow, V., Kettner, N. W., Vangel, M. G., Hamalainen, M. S., & Dhond, R. P. (2011). Differences in cortical response to acupressure and electroacupuncture stimuli. BMC Neuroscience, 12, 73.
Wollaston, D. E., Xu, X., Tokumaru, O., Chen, J. D., & McNearney, T. A. (2005). Patients with systemic sclerosis have unique and persistent alterations in gastric myoelectrical activity with acupressure to Neiguan point PC6. Journal of Rheumatology, 32(3), 494-501.
Woodward, S., Norton, C., & Barriball, K. L. (2010). A pilot study of the effectiveness of reflexology in treating idiopathic constipation in women. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 16(1), 41-46.
Wright, S., Courtney, U., Donnelly, C., Kenny, T., & Lavin, C. (2002). Clients’ perceptions of the benefits of reflexology on their quality of life. Complementary Therapies in Nursing & Midwifery, 8(2), 69-76.
Wu, H. S., Lin, L. C., Wu, S. C., & Lin, J. G. (2007). The psychologic consequences of chronic dyspnea in chronic pulmonary obstruction disease: the effects of acupressure on depression. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 13(2), 253-261.
Wu, X., Bai, G., Wen, J., & Yang, J. (2005). Evaluation on the therapeutic effects of digital acupoint pressure for obstetric spastic cerebral palsy. Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 25(4), 247-251.
Wyatt, G., Sikorskii, A., Rahbar, M. H., Victorson, D., & You, M. (2012). Health-related quality-of-life outcomes: a reflexology trial with patients with advanced-stage breast cancer. Oncology Nursing Forum, 39(6), 568-577.
Wyatt, G., Sikorskii, A., Siddiqi, A., & Given, C. W. (2007). Feasibility of a reflexology and guided imagery intervention during chemotherapy: results of a quasi-experimental study. Oncology Nursing Forum, 34(3), 635-642.
Xue, C. C., Zhang, C. S., Yang, A. W., Zhang, A. L., Li, Y., Xia, J., . . . Thien, F. (2011). Semi-self-administered ear acupressure for persistent allergic rhinitis: a randomised sham-controlled trial. Annals of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology, 106(2), 168-170.
Yeh, C. C., Ko, S. C., Huh, B. K., Kuo, C. P., Wu, C. T., Cherng, C. H., & Wong, C. S. (2008). Shoulder tip pain after laparoscopic surgery analgesia by collateral meridian acupressure (shiatsu) therapy: a report of 2 cases. Journal of Manipulative & Physiological Therapeutics, 31(6), 484-488.
Yeh, C. C., Wu, C. T., Huh, B. K., Lee, S. M., & Wong, C. S. (2009). Collateral meridian acupressure therapy effectively relieves postregional anesthesia/analgesia backache. Southern Medical Journal, 102(11), 1179-1182.
Yeh, C. H., & Yeh, S. C. (2008). Effects of ear points’ pressing on parameters related to obesity in non-obese healthy and obese volunteers. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 14(3), 309-314.
Yeh, M. L., Chen, C. H., Chen, H. H., & Lin, K. C. (2008). An intervention of acupressure and interactive multimedia to improve visual health among Taiwanese schoolchildren. Public Health Nursing, 25(1), 10-17.
Yeh, M. L., Chen, H. H., & Chung, Y. C. (2012). One year study on the integrative intervention of acupressure and interactive multimedia for visual health in school children. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 20(6), 385-392.
Yeh, M. L., Hung, Y. L., Chen, H. H., & Wang, Y. J. (2013). Auricular acupressure for pain relief in adolescents with dysmenorrhea: a placebo-controlled study. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 19(4), 313-318.
Yeh, M. L., Tsou, M. Y., Lee, B. Y., Chen, H. H., & Chung, Y. C. (2010). Effects of auricular acupressure on pain reduction in patient-controlled analgesia after lumbar spine surgery.[Erratum appears in Acta Anaesthesiol Taiwan. 2010 Sep;48(3):160]. Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica: Official Journal of the Taiwan Society of Anesthesiologists, 48(2), 80-86.
Yeung, W. F., Chung, K. F., Poon, M. M., Ho, F. Y., Zhang, S. P., Zhang, Z. J., . . . Wong, V. T. (2012). Acupressure, reflexology, and auricular acupressure for insomnia: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Sleep Medicine, 13(8), 971-984.
Yip, Y. B., & Tse, S. H. (2004). The effectiveness of relaxation acupoint stimulation and acupressure with aromatic lavender essential oil for non-specific low back pain in Hong Kong: a randomised controlled trial. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 12(1), 28-37.
Yip, Y. B., & Tse, S. H. (2006). An experimental study on the effectiveness of acupressure with aromatic lavender essential oil for sub-acute, non-specific neck pain in Hong Kong. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 12(1), 18-26.
Zhang, W., Takahashi, S., Miki, T., Fujieda, H., & Ishida, T. (2010). A pilot study exploring the effects of reflexology on cold intolerance. Jams Journal of Acupuncture & Meridian Studies, 3(1), 43-48.
Zhou, J., Qu, F., Sang, X., Burrows, E., & Nan, R. (2008). Auricular acupressure may improve absorption of flavanones in the extracts from Citrus aurantium L. in the human body. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 14(4), 423-425.
Zick, S. M., Wyatt, G. K., Murphy, S. L., Arnedt, J. T., Sen, A., & Harris, R. E. (2012). Acupressure for persistent cancer-related fatigue in breast cancer survivors (AcuCrft): a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. BMC Complementary & Alternative Medicine, 12, 132.
Zolfaghari, M., Eybpoosh, S., & Hazrati, M. (2012). Effects of therapeutic touch on anxiety, vital signs, and cardiac dysrhythmia in a sample of Iranian women undergoing cardiac catheterization: a quasi-experimental study. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 30(4), 225-234.
The following information is a brief rationale on the reasons for the exclusion of these modalities from our literature search. Keep in mind, we are comparing the core aspects of the practices of each modality. Our comparison is admittedly imperfect, and not intended to be a source of debate.
EFT – The core of EFT and its variants are a type of Energy Psychology, which is significantly different than EM, and EEM. The primary mechanism for EFT is the use of tapping meridian points. There are no exercises to activate and balance subtle energy systems, or work with other subtle energy systems. There is no practitioner based hands on healing involved. In addition, an up-to-date research bibliography can be found at Research.EFTuniverse.com.
Acupuncture – this modality works with the Meridians, a subtle energy system, and in some instances may utilize other energy systems that are engaged with Eden Energy Medicine (EEM; Radiant Circuits or the 5 Rhythms.) Yet the primary mechanism for stimulating these energies is the use of acupuncture needles. Typically these are placed in specified locations on the body, and then the practitioner leaves the client alone to let the needles stimulate their energies. This is a fundamentally different than the methodologies used in an EEM session, or when EEM is used for self-care, therefore we did not consider it significantly close in nature to EEM.
Traditional Massage – this modality uses techniques that are also found in EEM, although the emphasis in massage is to work with soft tissues, whereas in EEM it is to work with energy systems. Less frequently, or absent altogether, are there exercises or techniques used to directly stimulate subtle energies. More importantly, the typical rationale for the benefits of massage are explained via muscular skeletal alignment, or soft tissue release, and are not explained via the balancing of subtle energies.
Yoga – yoga is an ancient practice which has many different branches and expressions. In the US, emphasis is on the postural and breathing practices, which fall into the branch referred to as Hatha Yoga. There is some similarity between yoga postures and EEM Daily Energy Exercises or other EEM exercises. In fact some are very similar. However the execution of those practices are quite different than the use of EEM exercises of a private EEM session. Hatha Yoga is primarily a group based, teacher led experience, and there are not typically hands on based healing techniques as a core component of the major branches of Hatha yoga.